The Nature of ‘Non-conviction Information’
Police stations have become repositories of both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ information on members of the public, collated from various sources. ‘Hard’ information is that which is verifiable (like conviction records) and ‘soft’ information is less verifiable (like police intelligence). The means of storage are now digital in nature and include such databases as the Police National Computer (PNC), the Police National Database (PND) and the, currently being implemented, Law Enforcement Data Services (LEDS). The sources of this information are from police investigations, multi-agency meetings or ‘hubs’ discussing child welfare, domestic violence, and child sexual exploitation. Voluntary organisations also input information such as Neighbourhood Watch, Shopwatch, Pubwatch, ‘Crimestoppers’ etc. Some people are more vaguely designated as simply ‘known to the police’ and as such may have ‘non conviction information’ held on them.
KeywordsPolice National Computer Police National Database Law Enforcement Data Services Neighbourhood Watch Crimestoppers
- ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers). (2006). Retention Guidelines for Nominal Records on the Police National Computer: Incorporating the Step Down Model. London: ACPO. Available at https://www.whatdotheyknow.com/cy/request/173068/response/419921/attach/3/RetentionofRecords06.pdf. Accessed 9 November 2018.
- Burnett, R. (Ed.). (2017). Wrongful Allegations of Sexual and Child Abuse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Campbell, D. (1980). Society Under Surveillance. In P. Hain (Ed.), Policing the Police (Vol. 2). London: John Calder.Google Scholar
- Davies, N., & Foster, J. (1985, December 8). Police Use ‘Snoops’ to Compile Personal Files. Observer. London.Google Scholar
- Dicey, A. V. (2001). Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th ed.). Carmel, IN: Liberty Fund Publishing.Google Scholar
- Dodd, V. (2018, October 1). Police Super-Database Prompts Liberty Warning on Privacy. The Guardian.Google Scholar
- EHRC (Equality and Human Rights Commission). (2016, April). Stop and Think: A Critical Review of the Use of Stop and Search Powers in England and Wales. London.Google Scholar
- Hargreaves, F. (2017, February 4). Iceland Staff Are Warned Not to Share Photos of Shoplifters and Thugs in Case It Breaches the Criminals’ Privacy. Mail Online. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4191750/Iceland-staff-told-not-share-photos-shoplifters.html. Accessed 30 March 2018.
- HMIC/HMCPSI (HM Inspectorate of Constabulary/HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate). (2017, July). Living in Fear: The Police and CPS Response to Harassment and Stalking—A Joint Inspection by HMIC and HMCPSI. London.Google Scholar
- Home Office. (2005). Code of Practice on the Management of Police Information. London.Google Scholar
- Home Office. (2014, January). Home Office Guidance: Police National Computer (PNC). London.Google Scholar
- Home Office. (2018, July). National Law Enforcement Data Programme: Law Enforcement Data Service (LEDS)—Privacy Impact Assessment Report. London.Google Scholar
- House of Commons. (2004, June 22). The Bichard Inquiry Report (HC653). London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
- House of Commons. (2006, June 15). The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Bill (Research Paper 06/35). London.Google Scholar
- Liberty. (2018). Police Databases. Liberty London. Available at https://www.libertyhumanrights.org.uk/human-rights/privacy/police-databases. Accessed 22 April 2019.
- MacFarlane, K. (2016, December 29). More Than 200 Children at Risk of Sexual Exploitation Across County Durham. The Northern Echo. Available at http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/14992091.More_than_200_children_at_risk_of_sexual_exploitation_across_County_Durham/. Accessed 11 November 2018.
- Mason, S. (2011a). A Common Sense Approach: A Review of the Criminal Records Regime in England and Wales—Report on Phase 1. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
- Mason, S. (2011b). A Common Sense Approach: A Review of the Criminal Records Regime in England and Wales—Report on Phase 2. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
- Mohan-Hickson, M. (2018, October 15). Police Issue 54 Notices Warning Potential Child Sex Offenders to Change Their Ways in Two Years. The News. Portsmouth. Available at https://www.portsmouth.co.uk/news/crime/police-issue-54-notices-warning-potential-child-sex-offenders-to-change-their-ways-in-two-years-1-8669397. Accessed 11 November 2018.
- MoJ (Ministry of Justice). (2009, January 21). Surveillance: Citizens and the State. 2nd Report of the Constitution Committee Session 2008–9, Volume II (HL Paper 18-II). London: Memorandum by the Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
- MoJ (Ministry of Justice). (2018, October 25). Multi-agency Public Protection Arrangements: Annual Report 2017/18 Ministry of Justice Statistics Bulletin. London. Available at https://mappa.justice.gov.uk/connect.ti/MAPPA/view?objectId=13121904. Accessed 5 December 2018.
- Owen, G. (2016, February 7). Huge Rise in Divorce Claims Alleging Violence After Legal Aid Was Axed Except in Cases Involving Abuse. The Mail Online. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3435462/Huge-rise-domestic-violence-claims-legal-aid-clampdown-Figures-reveal-assault-allegations-doubled-ministers-axed-funding-divorce-cases.html. Accessed 4 April 2018.
- Ramesh, R. (2013, August 31). NSPCC Says Reports of Sexual Abuse Have Soared After Jimmy Savile Scandal. The Guardian Online. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/aug/31/nspcc-reports-sexual-abuse-jimmy-savile. Accessed 4 April 2018.
- SCC (Surveillance Camera Commissioner). (2016, November). Surveillance Camera Commissioner Annual Report 2015/16. London.Google Scholar
- Thomas, T. (2007). Criminal Records: A Database for the Criminal Justice System and Beyond. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
- Thomas, T. (2011). The Registration and Monitoring of Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study. London: Routledge.Google Scholar