Remote sensing has always been an important component in the river and lake ice tool box. Remote sensing gathers information regarding the earth’s surface using means that do not require direct contact with the surface. The information is attained by detecting energy emitted or reflected from the surface; this information is then processed and analysed further to determine particular characteristics of the surface features. These features can be, for example, different types of ice, ice thicknesses and extent of ice covers. Remote sensing is also useful to monitor the progression of ice-cover breakup and helps in the predictions of ice-jam locations and timing. Remote sensing can provide estimates of the volumes of ice that can accumulate in ice jams by detecting the extents of ice covers upstream of potential ice-jam sites.
KeywordsBackscatter Ice-thickness measurements Microwaves River ice-cover monitoring RADARSAT Sentinel-1 Space-borne remote sensing
- CCRS. (2009). Fundamentals of remote sensing. Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada. https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/node/9309.
- Lindenschmidt, K.-E., Sydor, M., & Carson, R. (2011, September). Ice jam modelling of the Red River in Winnipeg. 16th CRIPE workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers, Winnipeg, pp. 274–290. http://cripe.ca/docs/proceedings/16/Lindenschmidt-et-al-2011b.pdf
- Lindenschmidt, K.-E., van der Sanden, J., Demski, A., Drouin, H., & Geldsetzer, T. (2011, September). Characterising river ice along the Lower Red River using RADARSAT-2 imagery. 16th CRIPE workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers, Winnipeg, pp. 198–213. http://cripe.ca/docs/proceedings/16/Lindenschmidt-et-al-2011a.pdf
- MDA. (2009). RADARSAT-2 product description. MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. https://mdacorporation.com/docs/default-source/technical-documents/geospatial-services/52-1238_rs2_product_description.pdf?sfvrsn=10
- Raney, R. K. (1998). Radar fundamentals: Technical perspective. In F. M. Henderson & A. J. Lewis (Eds.), Principles and applications of imaging radar (3rd ed., pp. 9–130). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc..Google Scholar