Remote Sensing

  • Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt


Remote sensing has always been an important component in the river and lake ice tool box. Remote sensing gathers information regarding the earth’s surface using means that do not require direct contact with the surface. The information is attained by detecting energy emitted or reflected from the surface; this information is then processed and analysed further to determine particular characteristics of the surface features. These features can be, for example, different types of ice, ice thicknesses and extent of ice covers. Remote sensing is also useful to monitor the progression of ice-cover breakup and helps in the predictions of ice-jam locations and timing. Remote sensing can provide estimates of the volumes of ice that can accumulate in ice jams by detecting the extents of ice covers upstream of potential ice-jam sites.


Backscatter Ice-thickness measurements Microwaves River ice-cover monitoring RADARSAT Sentinel-1 Space-borne remote sensing 


  1. CCRS. (2009). Fundamentals of remote sensing. Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada.
  2. Lindenschmidt, K.-E., Syrenne, G., & Harrison, R. (2010). Measuring ice thicknesses along the Red River in Canada using RADARSAT-2 satellite imagery. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2(11), 923–933. Scholar
  3. Lindenschmidt, K.-E., Sydor, M., & Carson, R. (2011, September). Ice jam modelling of the Red River in Winnipeg. 16th CRIPE workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers, Winnipeg, pp. 274–290.
  4. Lindenschmidt, K.-E., van der Sanden, J., Demski, A., Drouin, H., & Geldsetzer, T. (2011, September). Characterising river ice along the Lower Red River using RADARSAT-2 imagery. 16th CRIPE workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers, Winnipeg, pp. 198–213.
  5. Moreira, A., Prats-Iraola, P., Younis, M., Krieger, G., Hajnsek, I., & Papathanassiou, K. P. (2013). A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar. Institute of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany. Scholar
  6. Raney, R. K. (1998). Radar fundamentals: Technical perspective. In F. M. Henderson & A. J. Lewis (Eds.), Principles and applications of imaging radar (3rd ed., pp. 9–130). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc..Google Scholar
  7. Unterschultz, K. D., van der Sanden, J., & Hicks, F. E. (2009). Potential of RADARSAT-1 for the monitoring of river ice. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 55, 238–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Global Institute for Water SecurityUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations