Milestone of Greening the Flight Path: Alternative Fuels



In this study, alternative fuels developed for use in the aviation sector were investigated while the advantages and disadvantages of new generation alternative fuels with kerosene used as traditional aviation fuel were compared with each other. It was concluded that alternative fuels could be used to reduce the emissions of reaction engines used in aviation, but the use of alternative fuels has reduced the propulsion force, one of the most important performance parameters in aviation. The engine performance parameters, fuel storage problems, behavioral characteristics of alternative fuel at different altitudes, alternative fuel production problems and easy accessibility status, logistics problems of fuel, and many parameters were considered to identify the positive and negative aspects of utilizing alternative fuels.


Aviation alternative fuels Gas turbine Sustainability 


  1. Achten, W., Maes, W., Aerts, R., Verchot, L., Trabucco, A., Mathijs, E., et al. (2010). Jatropha: From global hype to local opportunity. Journal of Arid Environments, 74(1), 164–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. E., Beyersdorf, A. J., Hudgins, C. H., Plant, J. V., Thornhill, K. L., Winstead, E. L., et al. (2011). Alternative aviation fuel experiment (AAFEX).Google Scholar
  3. Bann, S. J., Malina, R., Staples, M. D., Suresh, P., Pearlson, M., Tyner, W. E., et al. (2017). The costs of production of alternative jet fuel: A harmonized stochastic assessment. Bioresource Technology, 227, 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bindraban, P. S., Bulte, E. H., & Conijn, S. G. (2009). Can large-scale biofuels production be sustainable by 2020? Agricultural Systems, 101(3), 197–199.Google Scholar
  5. Blakey, S., Rye, L., & Wilson, C. W. (2011). Aviation gas turbine alternative fuels: A review. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 33(2), 2863–2885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blin, J., Brunschwig, C., Chapuis, A., Changotade, O., Sidibe, S. S., Noumi, E. S., et al. (2013). Characteristics of vegetable oils for use as fuel in stationary diesel engines—Towards specifications for a standard in West Africa. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22, 580–597.Google Scholar
  7. Blochel, A. (2017). The future of advanced bio-jet fuel (Dissertation). Retrieved from
  8. Bolszo, C. D., & McDonell, V. G. (2009). Emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired gas turbine. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 32(2), 2949–2956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bulzan, D., Anderson, B., Wey, C., Howard, R., Winstead, E., Beyersdorf, A., et al. (2010, October). Gaseous and particulate emissions results of the NASA alternative aviation fuel experiment (AAFEX). In ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea, and Air (pp. 1195–1207). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Google Scholar
  10. Bünger, J., Krahl, J., Franke, H. U., Munack, A., & Hallier, E. (1998). Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of exhaust particulate matter of biodiesel compared to fossil diesel fuel. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 415(1), 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chuck, C. J., & Donnelly, J. (2014). The compatibility of potential bioderived fuels with Jet A-1 aviation kerosene. Applied Energy, 118, 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Contreras, A., Yiğit, S., Özay, K., & Veziroğlu, T. N. (1997). Hydrogen as aviation fuel: A comparison with hydrocarbon fuels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 22(10–11), 1053–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daggett, D., Hendricks, R., & Walther, R. (2006, October). Alternative fuels and their potential impact on aviation. In 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS 2006) (NASA/TM-2006-214365, ICAS-2006-5.8.2, E-15568).Google Scholar
  14. Edwards, T., & Maurice, L. Q. (2001). Surrogate mixtures to represent complex aviation and rocket fuels. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 17(2), 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edwards, T., Moses, C., & Dryer, F. (2010, July). Evaluation of combustion performance of alternative aviation fuels. In 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit (p. 7155).Google Scholar
  16. EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed 11 July 2018.
  17. European Aviation Environmental Report. (2016). Accessed 11 July 2018.
  18. Gupta, K. K., Rehman, A., & Sarviya, R. M. (2010). Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9), 2946–2955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Habib, Z., Parthasarathy, R., & Gollahalli, S. (2010). Performance and emission characteristics of biofuel in a small-scale gas turbine engine. Applied Energy, 87(5), 1701–1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hari, T. K., Yaakob, Z., & Binitha, N. N. (2015). Aviation biofuel from renewable resources: Routes, opportunities and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 1234–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harvey, M., & Pilgrim, S. (2011). The new competition for land: Food, energy, and climate change. Food Policy, 36, S40–S51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hileman, J., Wong, H. M., Ortiz, D., Brown, N., Maurice, L., & Rumizen, M. (2008, September). The feasibility and potential environmental benefits of alternative fuels for commercial aviation. In Proceedings of the 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences (pp. 5–8).Google Scholar
  23. Hui, X., Kumar, K., Sung, C. J., Edwards, T., & Gardner, D. (2012). Experimental studies on the combustion characteristics of alternative jet fuels. Fuel, 98, 176–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. IATA International Air Transport Association Annual Report. (2009). 65th Annual General Meeting, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  25. IRENA. (2017). Biofuels for aviation: Technology brief. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency.Google Scholar
  26. Janaun, J., & Ellis, N. (2010). Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4), 1312–1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Janssen, R., & Rutz, D. D. (2011). Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities. Energy Policy, 39(10), 5717–5725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khalil, A. E., & Gupta, A. K. (2013). Fuel flexible distributed combustion for efficient and clean gas turbine engines. Applied Energy, 109, 267–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim, D., Martz, J., Abdul-Nour, A., Yu, X., Jansons, M., & Violi, A. (2017). A six-component surrogate for emulating the physical and chemical characteristics of conventional and alternative jet fuels and their blends. Combustion and Flame, 179, 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koh, L. P., & Ghazoul, J. (2008). Biofuels, biodiversity, and people: Understanding the conflicts and finding opportunities. Biological Conservation, 141(10), 2450–2460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Korres, D. M., Karonis, D., Lois, E., Linck, M. B., & Gupta, A. K. (2008). Aviation fuel JP-5 and biodiesel on a diesel engine. Fuel, 87(1), 70–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marsh, G. (2008). Biofuels: Aviation alternative? Renewable Energy Focus, 9(4), 48–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mattingly, J. D., & Von Ohain, H. (2006). Elements of propulsion: Gas turbines and rockets (pp. 276–277). Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maurice, L. Q., Lander, H., Edwards, T., & Harrison, W. E., III. (2001). Advanced aviation fuels: A look ahead via a historical perspective. Fuel, 80(5), 747–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McDowell Bomani, B. M., Bulzan, D. L., Centeno-Gomez, D. I., & Hendricks, R. C. (2009). Biofuels as an alternative energy source for aviation—A survey. NASA/TM—2009-215587.Google Scholar
  36. Mendez, C. J., Parthasarathy, R. N., & Gollahalli, S. R. (2014). Performance and emission characteristics of butanol/Jet A blends in a gas turbine engine. Applied Energy, 118, 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mitchell, D. (2011). Biofuels in Africa: Opportunities, prospects, and challenges (pp. 110–111). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  38. NRC National Research Council Canada. (2012). Historic milestone for the aviation and sustainable energy industries. Accessed 11 July 2018.
  39. Nygren, E., Aleklett, K., & Höök, M. (2009). Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios. Energy Policy, 37(10), 4003–4010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ölçüm, T. (2006). Biodiesel technology. İstanbul: Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.Google Scholar
  41. Penner, E. J. (1999). Aviation and the global atmosphere. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Phalan, B. (2009). The social and environmental impacts of biofuels in Asia: An overview. Applied Energy, 86, S21–S29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rehman, A., Phalke, D. R., & Pandey, R. (2011). Alternative fuel for gas turbine: Esterified jatropha oil–diesel blend. Renewable Energy, 36(10), 2635–2640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rye, L., Blakey, S., & Wilson, C. W. (2010). Sustainability of supply or the planet: A review of potential drop-in alternative aviation fuels. Energy & Environmental Science, 3(1), 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Solomon, B. D. (2010). Biofuels and sustainability. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1185(1), 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trivedi, P., Olcay, H., Staples, M. D., Withers, M. R., Malina, R., & Barrett, S. R. (2015). Energy return on investment for alternative jet fuels. Applied Energy, 141, 167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vermeulen, S., & Cotula, L. (2010). Over the heads of local people: Consultation, consent, and recompense in large-scale land deals for biofuels projects in Africa. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 37(4), 899–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang, W. C., & Tao, L. (2016). Bio-jet fuel conversion technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53, 801–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Won, S. H., Veloo, P. S., Dooley, S., Santner, J., Haas, F. M., Ju, Y., et al. (2016). Predicting the global combustion behaviors of petroleum-derived and alternative jet fuels by simple fuel property measurements. Fuel, 168, 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang, C., Hui, X., Lin, Y., & Sung, C. J. (2016). Recent development in studies of alternative jet fuel combustion: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, 120–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIğdır UniversityIğdırTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Airframe and Powerplant MaintenanceEskişehir Technical UniversityEskisehirTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Energy Systems EngineeringYasar UniversityİzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations