Advertisement

EU Biofuel Policies for Road and Rail Transportation Sector

  • Dušan DrabikEmail author
  • Thomas Venus
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Advances in Bioeconomy: Economics and Policies book series (PABEP)

Abstract

This chapter is about biofuel policies governing EU terrestrial transportation. We provide an overview of important historical and policy milestones fringing the path of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in the European Union. By discussing selected topics related to the biofuel production, we aim to lead the reader through the maze of interactions of the biofuel policies with other sectors of the EU bioeconomy. Initially food crops were seen as a promising candidate for a renewable biofuel feedstock; later developments at the global scale got EU policymakers thinking about the possible adverse effects of biofuel policies on food commodity prices and indirect land-use changes. These considerations resulted in capping first-generation biofuels and recently promoting second-generation (advanced) biofuels instead.

References

  1. Ahlgren, S., and L. Di Lucia. 2014. Indirect Land Use Changes of Biofuel Production–A Review of Modelling Efforts and Policy Developments in the European Union. Biotechnology for Biofuels 7 (1): 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boutesteijn, C., D. Drabik, and T.J. Venus. 2017. The Interaction Between EU Biofuel Policy and First-and Second-Generation Biodiesel Production. Industrial Crops and Products 106: 124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Copenhagen Economics. 2018. EU Imports of Palm Oil from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Retrieved from https://www.copenhageneconomics.com/dyn/resources/Publication/publicationPDF/8/448/1528720336/eu-imports-of-palm-oil-16may2018.pdf
  4. de Gorter, H., and D.R. Just. 2009. The Economics of a Blend Mandate for Biofuels. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (3): 738–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Gorter, H., D. Drabik, and D.R. Just. 2011. The Economics of a Blender’s Tax Credit Versus a Tax Exemption: The Case of U.S. “Splash and Dash” Biodiesel Exports to the European Union. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 33 (4): 510–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Denicoff, M.R. 2007. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder (No. 1470-2016-120667). Retrieved from: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/147607/files/EthanolBackgrounder.pdf
  7. Dineen, R. 2007. Biofuels: Overview and Potential for US Markets (PowerPoint) (No. 1451-2016-119851). Retrieved from: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/8101/files/fo07di01.pdf
  8. EUobserver. 2016. EU Tries to Reduce Share of ‘Food-Wasting’ Biofuels. Retrieved from: https://euobserver.com/energy/136080
  9. Euractiv. 2012. Eu Calls Time on First-Generation Biofuels. Retrieved from: https://www.euractiv.com/section/climate-environment/news/eu-calls-time-on-first-generation-biofuels/
  10. ———. 2014. EU Diplomats Agree to 7% Biofuels Cap. Retrieved from: https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/eu-diplomats-agree-to-7-biofuels-cap/
  11. ———. 2017. Commission’s Biofuels Proposal May Kill Future Investment, Industry Warns. Retrieved from: https://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/news/capping-biofuels-may-kill-future-investment-industry-warns/
  12. European Biodiesel Board. 2019. EBB Welcomes the Adoption of Definitive Anti-Subsidy Duties vs. Argentinean Unfair Imports. The EU Biodiesel Industry Will Monitor the Correct Execution of the Related Price Undertaking Agreement. EBB Press Release.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission. 2009a. Directive 2009/28/EC on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources and Amending and Subsequently Repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Official Journal of the European Union. OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 16–62.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2009b. Directive 2009/30/EC Amending Directive98/70/EC as Regards the Specification of petrol, Diesel and Gas–Oil and Introducing a Mechanism to Monitor and Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as Regards the Specification of Fuel Used by Inland Waterway Vessels and Repealing Directive 93/12/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union. OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 88–113.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2012. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 98/70/EC and Directive 2009/28/EC. COM 595 Final. Brussels.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2013. Renewable Energy Progress Report. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2013) 175 Final. Brussels, March 27, 2013.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2017. EU Crops Market Observatory – Oilseeds and Protein Crops: EU Proteins Balance Sheet – 2011–12 to 2016–17. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/market-observatory/crops/oilseeds-protein-crops/balance-sheets_en
  18. ———. 2018a. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources (Recast). Official Journal of the European Union. OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 82–209.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2018b. Report on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union. COM(2018) 757. Brussels, November 22, 2018.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2018c. EU Crops Market Observatory – Oilseeds and Protein Crops: EU Proteins Balance Sheet – 2011–12 to 2016–17. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/market-observatory/crops/oilseeds-protein-crops/balance-sheets_en
  21. European Court of Auditors. 2016. The EU System for the Certification of Sustainable Biofuels. Special Report. Retrieved from: https://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR16_18/SR_BIOFUELS_EN.pdf
  22. European External Action Service. 2018. Letter to the Editor: EU Ambassador on Palm Oil Stance. Jakarta. Unique ID: 181104_2.Google Scholar
  23. European Parliament. 2013. European Parliament Backs Switchover to Advanced Biofuels. Retrieved from: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/news-room/content/20130906IPR18831/html/European-Parliament-backs-switchover-to-advanced-biofuels
  24. Eurostat. 2017a. Primary Production of Renewable Energy by Type.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2017b. Shares 2017 – Short Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy/data/shares. Last updated on February 11, 2019.
  26. ———. 2019. Oil and Petroleum Products – A Statistical Overview. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Oil_and_petroleum_products_-_a_statistical_overview
  27. Flach, B., S. Lieberz, K. Bendz, B. Dahlbacka, and D. Achilles. 2010. EU-27 Annual Biofuels Report. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report Number NL0019 (6 November 2010).Google Scholar
  28. Jong, E.D., A. Higson, P. Walsh, and W. Maria. 2010. Bio-Based Chemicals: Value Added Products from Biorefineries. In IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefinery, 1–34. Retrieved from: http://www.ieabioenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Task-42-Biobased-Chemicals-value-added-products-from-biorefineries.pdf
  29. Morris, B., and G. Lui. 2018. Climate and Land Use Revised Palm Oil Strategy 2018–2021. The David Lucile & Packard Foundation Report, October 2018.Google Scholar
  30. Pelkmans, L., C. Goh, H. Junginger, R. Parhar, E. Bianco, A. Pellini, M. Gawor, S. Majer, D. Thran, L. Iriarte, and U. Fritsche. 2014. Impact of Promotion Mechanisms for Advanced and Low-iLUC Biofuels on Biomass Markets: Summary Report. Vol. IEA Bioene. IEA Bioenergy Task 40: 40.Google Scholar
  31. Warwick, L., J. Pinkney, and S. Cockerill. 2009. Impact of Protein Concentrate Coproducts on Net Land Requirement for European Biofuel Production. GCB Bioenergy 1: 346–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Technical University of MunichMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations