Doping: Which Economic Crime in Sport?

  • Wladimir Andreff
Part of the Palgrave Pivots in Sports Economics book series (PAPISE)


The definition of doping is a tricky issue on which depends whether it is a prohibited—therefore criminal—activity (as with the WADA negative list) or not. This chapter takes a snapshot view of empirical evidence about detected doping (the tip of an iceberg) in different sports and different countries, relying on WADA tested samples and further revealed occurrences of doping. A guesstimate of the global market for performance-enhancing drugs is presented. It is exhibited how unobservable doping distorts observed sporting outcomes in particular with a natural experiment pertaining to Sochi Winter Games. The impact of doping on fans, TV viewers, and sponsors is sketched. Standard economics of crime is at bay once again. Game theory treats doping as a dominant strategy, and provides a more interesting and relevant framework for analysing doping in sport as a prisoner’s dilemma.


Doping Economics of crime WADA Blood sample testing Performance-enhancing drugs Distorted sporting outcomes Game theory Dominant strategy Prisoner’s dilemma 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wladimir Andreff
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre d’Economie de la SorbonneUniversity Paris 1 Panthéon-SorbonneParisFrance

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