Advertisement

Sport Manipulations: Breaching Sport Rules for Gaining Advantage

  • Wladimir Andreff
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Pivots in Sports Economics book series (PAPISE)

Abstract

This chapter aims at covering simple sport manipulations that do not include dysfunctions, distortions, corruption and naked economic crime. Some of them are not directly linked to making money out of the manipulation or taking an economic advantage from it such as hazing, sabotage, goading, diving, playing against the rules, gamesmanship, refereeing biases, health-compromising practices, naked violence and hooliganism. Then comes those rule violations that enable the guilty ones to gain a competitive or economic advantage which eventually translates into pocketing money streams such as cheating to make money, technological manipulations in sport, tanking and sandbagging.

Keywords

Sport rules Hazing Sabotage Goading Diving Cheating Gamesmanship Refereeing biases Violence Hooliganism Technological manipulations Tanking Sandbagging 

References

  1. Allan, E. J., & Madden, M. (2008). Hazing in View: College Students at Risk. Initial Findings from the National Study of Student Hazing. College of Education and Human Development, University of Maine.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, W. D. (2002). Crime, punishment and recidivism: Lessons from the National Hockey League. Journal of Sports Economics, 3(1), 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreff, W. (1985). Le muscle et la machine. Culture Technique, 13, 38–61.Google Scholar
  4. Areni, C. S. (2014). Home advantage, rivalry, and referee bias in representative rugby. Sport Business and Management: an International Journal, 4(2), 142–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balsdon, E., Fong, L., & Thayer, M. A. (2007). Corruption in college basketball? Evidence of tanking in postseason conference tournaments. Journal of Sports Economics, 8(1), 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borland, J., Chicu, M., & Macdonald, R. D. (2009). Do teams always lose to win? Performance incentives and the player draft in the Australian Football League. Journal of Sports Economics, 10(5), 451–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyko, R. H., Boyko, A. R., & Boyko, M. G. (2007). Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(11), 1185–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brocas, I., & Carrillo, J. D. (2004). Do the “three-point victory” and “golden goal” rules make soccer more exciting? A theoretical analysis of a simple game. Journal of Sports Economics, 5(2), 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunel, P. (2018). Rouler plus vite que la mort. Paris: Grasset.Google Scholar
  10. Buraimo, B., Forrest, D., & Simmons, R. (2010). The 12th man? Refereeing bias in English and German soccer. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 173, 431–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buzuvis, E., & Newhall, K. (2016). Inequality, discrimination and sexual violence in US collegiate sports. In Global Corruption Report: Sport (pp. 300–305). London: Transparency International, Copyright material provided by Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  12. Carroll, M. S., Connaughton, D. P., Spengler, J. O., & Zhang, J. J. (2009). Case law analysis regarding high school and college liability for hazing. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(4), 389–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crow, R. B., & Macintosh, E. W. (2009). Conceptualizing a meaningful definition of hazing in sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(4), 433–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dagaev, D., & Sonin, K. (2018). Winning by losing: Incentive incompatibility in multiple qualifiers. Journal of Sports Economics, 19(8), 1067–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawson, P. (2014). Refereeing and infringement of the rules. In J. Goddard & P. Sloane (Eds.), Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football (pp. 401–418). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  16. Dawson, P., Dobson, S., Goddard, J., & Wilson, J. (2007). Are football referees really biased and inconsistent? Evidence on the incidence of disciplinary sanction in the English Premier League. Journal of Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 170, 231–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Del Corral, J., Prieto-Rodriguez, J., & Simmons, R. (2010). The effect of incentives on sabotage: The case of Spanish football. Journal of Sports Economics, 11(3), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deutscher, C. (2015). No referee bias in the NBA: New evidence with leagues’ assessment data. Journal of Sports Analytics, 1(2), 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dohmen, T. J., & Sauermann, J. (2016). Referee bias. Journal of Economic Surveys, 30(4), 679–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duvinage, C. (2012). Referees in Sports Contests: Their Economic Role and the Problem of Corruption in Professional German Sports Leagues. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garicano, L., & Palacios-Huerta, I. (2006). Sabotage in tournaments: Making the beautiful game a bit less beautiful (Research Paper). University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  22. Giannoulakis, C., & Drayer, J. (2009). “Thugs” versus “good guys”: The impact of NBA cares on player image. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(4), 453–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green, C., & Simmons, R. (2015). The English disease: Has football hooliganism been eliminated or just displaced? In P. Rodriguez, S. Késenne, & R. Koning (Eds.), The Economics of Competitive Sport (pp. 39–55). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harvey, A., & Levi, H. (2016). Match fixing in international sport. In T. Byers (Ed.), Contemporary Issues in Sport Management: A Critical Introduction (pp. 296–314). Los Angeles: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heckelman, J., & Yates, A. (2003). And a hockey game broke out: Crime and punishment in the NHL. Economic Inquiry, 41(4), 705–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoover, N. C. (1999, August 30). National Survey: Initiation Rites and Athletics for NCAA Sports Teams. Alfred University.Google Scholar
  27. IOC. (2007). Consensus Statement: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee.Google Scholar
  28. Jewell, R. T. (2009). Estimating demand for aggressive play: The case of English Premier League football. International Journal of Sport Finance, 4(3), 192–210.Google Scholar
  29. Jewell, R. T., Moti, A., & Coates, D. (2012). A brief history of violence and aggression in spectator sports. In R. T. Jewell (Ed.), Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests: Economics, History and Policy (pp. 11–26). New York: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jewell, R. T., Simmons, R., & Szymanski, S. (2014). Bad for business? The effects of hooliganism on English professional football clubs. Journal of Sports Economics, 15(5), 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, J., Guerrero, M. D., Holman, M., & Chin, J. W. (2018). An examination of hazing in Canadian intercollegiate sports. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 12(2), 144–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kendall, G., & Lenten, J. A. (2017). When sports rules go awry. European Journal of Operational Research, 257, 377–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klein, A. (2001). Pumping irony: Crisis and contradiction in bodybuilding. In A. Yiannakis & M. Melnick (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Sociology of Sport (4th ed., pp. 413–426). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  34. Kräkel, M. (2014). Sandbagging. Journal of Sports Economics, 15(3), 263–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lazear, E. (1989). Pay equality and industrial politics. Journal of Political Economy, 97(3), 561–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Levitt, S. D. (2002). Testing the economic model of crime: The National Hockey League’s two-referee experiment. Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy, 1(1), 1–19. Google Scholar
  37. McCormick, R. E., & Tollison, R. D. (1984). Crime on the court. Journal of Political Economy, 92(2), 223–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Münster, J. (2009). Repeated contests with asymmetric information. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 11(1), 89–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ponseti, F. J., Cantallops, J., & Muntaner-Mas, A. (2016). Fair play, cheating and gamesmanship in young basketball teams. Journal of Physical Education & Health, 5(8), 29–33.Google Scholar
  40. Preston, I., & Szymanski, S. (2003). Cheating in contests. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 19(4), 612–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Priks, M. (2010). Does frustration lead to unruly behaviour? Evidence from the Swedish hooligan scene. Kyklos, 63, 450–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Primault, D. (2009). Les supporters sont tous des hooligans. Revue Juridique et Economique du Sport, 93, 97–101.Google Scholar
  43. Probert, A., & Leberman, S. (2009). The value of the dark side: An insight into the risks and benefits of engaging in health-compromising practices from the perspective of competitive bodybuilders. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(4), 353–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reade, J. (2014). Detecting corruption in football. In J. Goddard & P. Sloane (Eds.), Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football (pp. 419–446). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  45. Rees, D., & Schnepel, K. (2009). College football games and crime. Journal of Sports Economics, 10(1), 68–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rodenberg, R. M., & Lim, C. H. (2009). Payback calls: A starting point for measuring basketball referee bias and impact on team performance. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(4), 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schwery, R., & Cade, D. (2009). Sport as a social laboratory to cure anomie and prevent violence. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9(4), 469–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Soebbing, B. P., Humphreys, B. R., & Mason, D. S. (2013). Exploring incentives to lose in professional team sports: Do conference games matter? International Journal of Sport Finance, 8(3), 192–207.Google Scholar
  49. Sukys, S. (2013). Athletes’ justification of cheating in sport: Relationship with moral disengagement in sport and personal factors. Ugdymas Kuno Kultura Sportas, 3(90), 70–77.Google Scholar
  50. Szymanski, S., & Kuypers, T. (1999). Winners and Losers: The Business Strategy of Football. London: Viking.Google Scholar
  51. Taylor, B., & Trogdon, J. (2002). Losing to win: Tournament incentives in the National Basketball Association. Journal of Labour Economics, 20(1), 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vallet, G. (2017). The gendered economics of bodybuilding. International Review of Sociology, 27(3), 525–545. Google Scholar
  53. VanDerwerken, D. N., Rothert, J., & Nguelifack, B. M. (2018). Does the threat of suspension curb dangerous behavior in soccer? A case study from the Premier League. Journal of Sports Economics, 19(6), 759–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Witt, R. (2005). Do players react to sanction changes? Evidence from the English Premier League. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 52(4), 623–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wladimir Andreff
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre d’Economie de la SorbonneUniversity Paris 1 Panthéon-SorbonneParisFrance

Personalised recommendations