Advertisement

Exploring Traps in Forest and Marine Socio-Ecological Systems of Southern and Austral Chile

  • Laura NahuelhualEmail author
  • Gonzalo Saavedra
  • Cristobal Jullian
  • María Amalia Mellado
  • Felipe Benra
Chapter

Abstract

Traps in social-ecological systems depict situations where human actors and institutions interact with ecological dynamics and unintentionally steer development into vulnerable paths difficult to reverse. We use the social-ecological trap (SET) metaphor and path-dependence analysis to describe the emerge of trap situations in two contrasting cases: (1) Panguipulli municipality, representative of the significant land inequalities that dominate the rural landscape of southern Chile, and (2) southern king crab artisan fishery (Lithodes santolla) of the Magellan region, a semi-open access fishery of high economic value, where illegal extractions are a pressing problem. In Panguipulli, the system is caught in a “trilogy of inequalities” (land, forest, and ecosystem services) that together conform an inequality trap. Government policies surrounding land and forest tenure since the imposition of colonial rule and the modern State have interacted with other factors to concentrate economic power in large landowners, marginalize small peasants, and weaken customary management institutions. In the Magellan case, the trap could be erroneously confounded since there are no apparent human losers. As 3 years of interviews and participant observations reveal, the apparent absence of a trap rests on the confidence that “there are still resources for all” and that illegal fishing is not pressing the size of the stock.

Keywords

Social-ecological systems Latin America Complexity Chile Social-ecological traps Forests King crabs 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been funded by Grants FONDAP 15150003 and FONDECYT 1190207.

References

  1. Albert F (1911) La necesidad urgente de crear una inspección general de bosques, pesca y caza. Ministerio de Industria, Sección de Aguas y Bosques, Santiago de ChileGoogle Scholar
  2. Almonacid F (2009) El Problema de la Propiedad de la Tierra en el Sur de Chile (1850-1930). Revista Historia 42:45–56Google Scholar
  3. Angosto-Fernández L (2018) Neoextractivism and class formation: lessons from the Orinoco mining arc project in Venezuela. Lat Am Perspect 46:190–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armesto J, Villagrán C, Donoso C (1994) La historia del bosque templado chileno. Amb Des 10:66–72Google Scholar
  5. Armesto J, Manuschevich D, Mora A et al (2010) From the Holocene to the Anthropocene: a historical framework for land cover change in southwestern South America in the past 15,000 years. Land Use Policy 27:148–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azariadis C, Stachurski J (2004) Poverty traps. In: Aghion P, Durlauf S (eds) Handbook of economic growth, 1st edn. North Holland, pp 295–384Google Scholar
  7. Baker D, Murray G, Agyare A (2018) Governance and the making and breaking of social-ecological traps. Ecol Soc 23:28–38Google Scholar
  8. Barrena J, Hernando M, Rojas F (2016) Antecedentes históricos sobre el Complejo Forestal y Maderero Panguipulli, provincia de Valdivia, Centro-sur de Chile. Bosque 37:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett C, Swallow B (2006) Fractal poverty traps. World Dev 34:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barry B, Bateman T (1996) A social trap analysis of the management of diversity. Acad Manag Rev 21:757–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bengoa J (1990) Historia social de la agricultura chilena. Tomo II: Haciendas y campesinos. Ediciones SUR, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  12. Bengoa J (1999) Historia de un conflicto: El Estado y los Mapuches en el siglo XX. Planeta/Ariel, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett A (2008) Process tracing: a bayesian perspective. In: Box-Steffensmeier J, Brady H, Collier D (eds) The oxford handbook of political methodology. United Kingdom, Oxford, pp 702–721Google Scholar
  14. Benra F, Nahuelhual L (2019) A trilogy of inequalities: land ownership, forest cover and ecosystem services distribution. Land Use Policy 82:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bitrán E (1989) El desafío pesquero chileno: la explotación racional de nuestras riquezas marinas. In: Hachette (ed), Santiago, p 412Google Scholar
  16. Bize C (2017) El otoño de los raulíes. In: Tiempo Robado (ed) Poder popular en el complejo Forestal y Maderero Panguipulli. (Neltume 1967-1973). Santiago, pp 41–55Google Scholar
  17. Boonstra W, Björkvik E, Haider L et al (2016) Human responses to social-ecological traps. Sustain Sci 11:877–889PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bourguignon F, Ferreira F, Walton M (2007) Equity, efficient and inequality traps: a research agenda. J Econ Inequal 5:235–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Camus P (2006) Ambiente, bosques y gestión forestal en Chile 1541–2005. In: LOM (ed) Centro de Investigaciones Barros Arana, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  20. Capraro V (2013) A model of human cooperation in social dilemmas. PLos One 8:e72427PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ceballos M, Ther F (2011) Transformation in Today’s artisan fisheries economies: the case of Cucao and Tenaún (province of Chiloé, Los Lagos region, Chile). Cuadernos de Goegrafía Revista Colombiana de Geografía 2:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cinner J (2011) Social-ecological traps in reef fisheries. Global Environ Chang 21:835–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clapp R (1998) Regions of refuge and the agrarian question: peasant agriculture and plantation forestry in Chilean Araucania. World Dev 26:571–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Comaroff J, Comaroff J (2009) Ethnicity, Inc. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Composto C (2012) Acumulación por despojo y neoextractivismo en ámerica latina. Una reflexión crítica acerca del estado y los movimientos socio-ambientales en el nuevo siglo. Astrolabio (ed) 8:323–352Google Scholar
  26. Coomes O, Takasaki Y, Rhemtulla J (2016) Forests as landscapes of social inequality: tropical forest cover and land distribution among shifting cultivators. Ecol Soc 21:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Corporación de Promoción y Defensa de los Derechos del Pueblo, CODEPU (1991) Chile: Recuerdos de la Guerra. Valdivia – Neltume – Chihuio – Liquiñe, vol 2, de la Serie Verdad y Justicia, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  28. Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF) (1998) Catastro de uso vegetacional para la región de los Lagos 1998Google Scholar
  29. Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF) (2013) Catastro de uso vegetacional para la región de los Ríos 2013Google Scholar
  30. Costanza R (1987) Social traps and environmental policy. Bioscience 37:407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cumming G (2018) A review of social dilemmas and social-ecological traps in conservation and natural resource management. Conserv Lett 11:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Enfors E (2013) Social-ecological traps and transformations in dryland agro-ecosystems: using water system innovations to change the trajectory of development. Global Environ Chang 23:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Escobar A (2008) Territories of difference: place, movements, life, redes. Duke University Press, DurhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fairhead J, Leach M, Scoones I (2012) Green grabbing: a new appropriation of nature? J Peasant Stud 39:237–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. García Canclini N (1990) Culturas híbridas. Estrategias para entrar y salir de la modernidad. Grijalbo SA, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  36. Garrido J, Guerrero C, Valdés M (1988) Historia de la reforma agraria en Chile. Universitaria (ed) SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  37. George A, Bennett A (2005) Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. MIT Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Gómez S, Echeñique J (1991) La Agricultura Chilena, las Dos Caras de la Modernización. Flacso-Agraria, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  39. González P (2003) Colonialismo Interno (Una redefinición). La teoría Marxista hoy. Revista Rebeldía N° 12Google Scholar
  40. Haider L, Boonstra W, Peterson G et al (2018) Traps and sustainable development in rural areas: a review. World Dev 101:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harvey D (2005) A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  42. Holmes G (2015) Markets, nature, neoliberalism, and conservation through private protected areas in southern Chile. Environ Plan A 47:850–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huber A, Iroumé A, Mohr C et al (2010) Efecto de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata y Eucalyptus globulus sobre el recurso agua en la Cordillera de la Costa de la región del Biobío, Chile. Bosque 31:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. IFOP (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero) (1966) The fishing of the king crab in the province of Magallanes. Observations on the current state of the industry. Circular 2 fisheries economy. IFOP, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  45. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas) (1955) Censo agropecuario y forestal para la región de los Ríos 1965. INE, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  46. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas) (1976) Censo agropecuario y forestal para la región de los Ríos 1976. INE, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  47. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas) (1997) Censo agropecuario y forestal de para la región de los Ríos 1997. INE, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  48. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas) (2007) Censo agropecuario y forestal de para la región de los Ríos 2007. INE, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  49. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas) (2017) Resultados Censo para la Región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena. INE, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  50. Ingold T, Palsson G (2013) Biosocial becomings: integrating social and biological anthropology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization) (2002) Directrices de la OIMT para la restauración, ordenación y rehabilitación de bosques tropicales secundarios y degradados. Serie de políticas forestales No 13Google Scholar
  52. ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization) (2005) Criterios e indicadores revisados de la OIMT para la ordenación sostenible de los bosques tropicales con inclusión de un formato de informes. Serie de políticas forestales No 15Google Scholar
  53. Jarvis L, Wilen J (2014) The political economy of the Chilean Nearshore fisheries reform. In: UCLA (ed) University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  54. Jerneck A, Olsson L, Ness B et al (2011) Structuring sustainability science. Sustain Sci 6:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jiao X, Smith-Hall C, Theilade I (2015) Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia. Land Use Policy 48:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kasanga K, Kotey N (2001) Land management in Ghana: building on tradition and modernity. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Klubock T (2014) La Frontera. Forest and ecological conflict in Chile's frontier territory. Duke University Press, Durham, DurhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kronenberg J, Hubacek K (2013) Could payments for ecosystem services create an “ecosystem service curse”? Ecol Soc 18:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kuusaana E, Gerber N (2015) Institutional synergies in customary land markets-selected case studies of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) in Ghana. Land 4:842–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lansing D (2014) Unequal access to payments for ecosystem services: the case of Costa Rica. Dev Change 45:1310–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lara A, Veblen T (1993) Forest plantations in Chile: a successful model? In: Mather A (ed) Afforestation policies, planning and progress. Belhaven Press, London, pp 118–139Google Scholar
  62. Lebel L, Manuta J, Garden P (2011) Institutional traps and vulnerability to changes in climate and flood regimes in Thailand. Reg Environ Chang 11:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mahoney J (2001) Path-dependent explanations of regime change: Central America in comparative perspective. Stud Comp Int Dev 36:111–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Martinic M (1999) Migración Chilota a Magallanes. In: Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia (ed) Instituto de la Patagonia, Punta Arenas, vol 27. pp 27–47Google Scholar
  65. McCarter M, Budescu D, Scheffran J (2011) The give-or-take-some dilemma: an empirical investigation of a hybrid social dilemma. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 116:83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McDermott M, Mahanty S, Schreckenberg K (2013) Examining equity: a multidimensional framework for assessing equity in payments for ecosystem services. Environ Sci Pol 33:416–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller M (2006) Opportunities and challenges for migrant and migrant-background youth in developed countries. In: Report submitted to the United Nations Social and Economic CouncilGoogle Scholar
  68. Montalba R, Carrasco N (2005) ¿Desarrollo sostenible o eco-etnocidio? El proceso de expansión forestal en territorio Mapuche-nalche de Chile. Revista de Estudios sobre Despoblación y Desarrollo Rural 4:101–133Google Scholar
  69. Muñoz J, Zamora E (1975) De Chiloé a Magallanes. El inmigrante chilote en la Patagonia Magallánica. Memoria de título en Geografía. Universidad de Valparaíso, ValparaísoGoogle Scholar
  70. Nahuelhual L, Saavedra G, Blanco G et al (2018a) On super fishers and black capture: images of illegal fishing in artisanal fisheries of southern Chile. Mar Policy 95:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nahuelhual L, Saavedra G, Henriquez F et al (2018b) Opportunities and limits to ecosystem services governance in developing countries and indigenous territories: the case of water supply in southern Chile. Environ Sci Pol 84:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peña-Torres J (1997) The political economy of fishing regulation: the case of Chile. Mar Resour Econ 12:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Platt J (1973) Social traps. Am Psychol 28:642–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rao N (2006) Land rights, gender equality and household food security: exploring the conceptual links in the case of India. Food Policy 31:180–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reyes R, Blanco G, Lagarrigue A, Rojas F (2016) Ley de Bosque Nativo: Desafíos Sociales para su Implementación. Instituto Nacional Forestal (INFOR), SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  76. Rivas R (2006) Desarrollo forestal de Neltume; Estado y trabajadores (1924–1990). Tesis de Profesor de Historia, Geografía y Educación Cívica. Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades. Universidad Austral de Chile, ValdiviaGoogle Scholar
  77. Rodríguez-Robayo K, Merino-Perez L (2017) Contextualizing context in the analysis of payment for ecosystem services. Ecosyst Serv 23:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roe D, Yassin E, Porras I et al (2013) Linking biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction: de-polarizing the conservation-poverty debate. Conserv Lett 6:162–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rosenblitt J, Correa M, Hajek E (2001) La modernización de la agricultura Chilena. Pobreza y medio ambiente después de la reestructuración. Revista de humanidades y Ciencias Sociales 50:163–191Google Scholar
  80. Rudel T, Katan T, Horowitz B (2013) Amerindian livelihoods, outside interventions, and poverty traps in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Rural Sociol 78:167–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schkolnik S (1994) Los mapuches: una investigación multidisciplinaria en reducciones indígenas de Chile. In: CEPAL (ed) Estudios sociodemográficos de pueblos indígenas. Series históricas. pp 147–169Google Scholar
  82. Schoon M, Van der Leeuw S (2015) The shift toward social-ecological systems perspectives: insights into the human-nature relationship. Nat Sci Soc 23:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (SERNAPESCA) (2018) Anuario Estadistico de Pesca. SERNAPESCA, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  84. Skewes J, Solari ME, Guerra D et al (2012) Los paisajes del agua: naturaleza e identidad en la cuenca del río Valdivia, Sur de Chile. Chungara 46:651–668Google Scholar
  85. Steneck R, Hughes T, Cinner J et al (2011) Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery. Conser Biol 25:904–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stewart N, Dawson N (2013) Forest thinning: a Landowner’s tool for healthy woods. Extension bulletin EB-407. University of Maryland Extension, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  87. SUBPESCA (Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura) (2004) Informe Técnico (R. Pesq.) N° 102 suspensión temporal del acceso a la pesquería de Centolla de la XII región 2005–2009Google Scholar
  88. Susaeta E (1989) La sustentabilidad en el desarrollo forestal chileno. Amb Des 5:13–27Google Scholar
  89. Tidball K, Frantzeskaki N, Elmqvist T (2016) Traps! An introduction to expanding thinking on persistent maladaptive states in pursuit of resilience. Sustain Sci 11:861–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Torres R, Azócar G, Rojas J et al (2015) Vulnerability and resistance to neoliberal environmental changes: an assessment of agriculture and forestry in the biobio region of Chile. Geoforum 60:107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tura H (2018) Land rights and land grabbing in Oromia, Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 70:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Urbina R (1998) Chiloé, foco de migraciones. In: Fliman-Grinberg X (ed) Chiloé y su influjo en la XI Región. II Jornadas territoriales. Universidad de Santiago, Santiago, pp 31–46Google Scholar
  93. Van Lange P, Joireman J, Parks C et al (2013) The psychology of social dilemmas: a review. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 120:125–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Virapongse A, Brooks S, Covelli E et al (2016) A social-ecological systems approach for environmental management. J Environ Manag 178:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weingart A, Kirk M (2011) Escaping poverty traps? Collective action and property rights in postwar rural Cambodia. In: Mwang E, Markelova H, Suseela R (eds) University of Pennsylvania Press. Published for the International Food Policy Research Institute. pp 328–356Google Scholar
  96. World Bank (2016) Poverty and shared prosperity: taking on inequality. World Bank, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. World Bank (2017) World development report 2017: governance and the law main messages. World Bank, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zavala J (2008) Los colonos y la escuela en la araucanía: los inmigrantes europeos y el surgimiento de la educación privada laica y protestante en la región de la Arauicanía (1887-1915). Revista Universum 23:268–286Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Nahuelhual
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gonzalo Saavedra
    • 3
  • Cristobal Jullian
    • 1
  • María Amalia Mellado
    • 1
  • Felipe Benra
    • 4
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Universidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y AdministrativasInstituto de Economía, Universidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  3. 3.Instituto de Estudios Antropológicos, Universidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  4. 4.UFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental ResearchLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations