Advertisement

The L2 Motivational Self System

  • Kata Csizér
Chapter

Abstract

Despite the fact that learners’ identities are thought to be shaped by foreign/second (L2) language learning, the emergence of self-related issues in L2 motivation research is relatively recent. The aim of the present chapter is to summarize our knowledge about one particular self-theory in relation to L2 learning motivation, that is, the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005) and its components: the ideal L2 self, the ought-to L2 self and L2 learning experience. I start by describing the emergence of the model and introducing empirical investigations about the verification of constructs pertaining to the model. Next, I present research that has been conducted on the model, paying special attention to the interdisciplinary nature of the relevant studies, to the concept of motivation as vision, and to contextual issues, multilingualism, and the model’s potential links to dynamic systems theory. Finally, future research directions are suggested by taking into account the strength of the model and the shortcomings of previous research.

References

  1. Al-Hoorie, A. (2018). The L2 motivational self system: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8, 721–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Shehri, S. A. (2009). Motivation and vision: The relation between the ideal L2 self, imagination and visual style. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 164–171). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  3. Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). L2 motivation research 2005-2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System, 55, 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan, L. (2014). Effects of an imagery training strategy on Chinese university students’ possible second language selves and learning experiences. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 357–376). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Csizér, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The internal structure of language learning motivation and its relationship with language choice and learning effort. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Csizér, K., & Galántai, D. (2012). The role of parents and teachers in shaping secondary school students’ L2 motivation. The results of structural equation modelling [in Hungarian]. In A. Németh (Ed.), Programs of pedagogy in the doctoral school: Scientific fields and research results [in Hungarian] (pp. 171–178). Budapest: ELTE Eötvös Kiadó.Google Scholar
  8. Csizér, K., & Kálmán, C. S. (Eds.). (2019). Language learning experience: The neglected element in L2 motivation research (Special Issue). Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 9(1).Google Scholar
  9. Csizér, K., & Lukács, G. (2010). The comparative analysis of motivation, attitudes and selves: The case of English and German in Hungary. System, 38, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Csizér, K., & Magid, M. (Eds.). (2014). The impact of self-concept on language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  11. de Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Dörnyei, Z. (2009a). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  14. Dörnyei, Z. (2009b). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dörnyei, Z. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Dörnyei, Z. (2014). Future self-guides and vision. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 7–18). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dörnyei, Z. (2018). Towards understanding perseverance in L2 learning: Long-term motivation, motivational currents and vision. In Plenary Talk at the International Conference of Psychology of Language Learning: Stretching the Boundaries, June 10, 2018, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  18. Dörnyei, Z., & Al-Hoorie, A. (2017). The motivational foundation of learning languages other than global English: Theoretical issues and research directions. The Modern Language Journal, 101, 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. (2002). Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide survey. Applied Linguistics, 23, 421–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., & Németh, N. (2006). Motivational dynamics, language attitudes and language globalisation: A Hungarian perspective. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dörnyei, Z., Henry, A., & Muir, C. (2016). Motivational currents in language learning: Frameworks for focused interventions. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014). Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Dörnyei, Z., MacIntyre, P., & Henry, A. (Eds.). (2015). Motivational dynamics in language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  24. Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.). (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  26. Eurobarometer. (2012). Europeans and their languages. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf
  27. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London, UK: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  28. Gregersen, T., & MacIntyre, P. (2015). “I can see a little bit of you on myself”: A dynamic systems approach to the inner dialogue between teacher and learner selves. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 260–284). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  29. Hadfield, J., & Dörnyei, Z. (2013). Motivating learning. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  30. Henry, A. (2010). Contexts of possibility in simultaneous language learning: Using the L2 motivational self system to assess the impact of global English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 31, 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Henry, A. (2011). Examining the impact of L2 English on L3 selves: A case study. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8, 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Henry, A. (2014). The motivational effects of crosslinguistic awareness: Developing third language pedagogies to address the negative impact of the L2 on the L3 self-concept. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 8, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Henry, A. (2015a). The dynamics of possible selves. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 83–94). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  34. Henry, A. (2015b). The dynamics of L3 motivation: A longitudinal interview/observation based study. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 315–342). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  35. Henry, A. (2017). L2 motivation and multilingual identities. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 548–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Henry, A., & Cliffordson, C. (2013). Motivation, gender, and possible selves. Language Learning, 63, 271–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Henry, A., & Thorsen, C. (2017). The ideal multilingual self: Validity, influences on motivation, and role in a multilingual education. International Journal of Multilingualism, 15, 349–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hessel, G. (2015). From vision to action: Inquiring into the conditions for the motivational capacity of ideal second language selves. System, 52, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Higgins, E. T. (1996). The “self digest”: Self-knowledge serving self-regulatory functions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 1062–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Higgins, E. T., Roney, C. J., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 276–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Irie, K., & Brewster, D. R. (2014). Investing in experiential capital: Self-efficacy, imagination and development of ideal L2 selves. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 171–188). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Islam, M., Lamb, M., & Chambers, G. (2013). The L2 motivational self system and national interest: A Pakistani perspective. System, 41, 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Iwaniec, J. (2014). Self constructs in language learning: What is their role in self-regulation? In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 189–205). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kim, T.-Y. (2009). The sociocultural interface between ideal self and ought-to self: A case study of two Korean students’ ESL motivation. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 274–294). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  47. Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age-related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves and motivated learning behaviour. Language Learning, 58, 327–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kormos, J., & Kiddle, T. (2013). The role of socio-economic factors in motivation to learn English as a foreign language: The case of Chile. System, 41, 399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lamb, M. (2004). “It depends on the students themselves”: Independent language learning at an Indonesian state school. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 17, 229–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lamb, M. (2009). Situating the L2 self: Two Indonesian school learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 229–247). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  51. Lamb, M. (2012). A self-system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language Learning, 62, 997–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lyons, D. (2014). The L2 self-concept in second language learning motivation: A longitudinal study of Korean university students. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 108–130). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. MacIntyre, P. D., Mackinnon, S. P., & Clément, R. (2009). Toward the development of a scale to assess possible selves as a source of language learning motivation. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 193–214). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  54. MacIntyre, P. D., & Serroul, A. (2015). Motivation on a per-second timescale: Examining approach—Avoidance motivation during L2 task performance. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 109–138). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  55. Mackay, J. (2014). Applications and implications of the L2 motivational self system in a Catalan EFL context. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 377–400). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Magid, M. (2014). A motivational programme for learners of English: An application of the L2 motivational self system. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 333–356). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mercer, S. (2014). Re-imagining the self as a network of relationships. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 51–69). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mercer, S. (2015). Dynamics of the self: A multilevel nested systems approach. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 139–163). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  60. Miyahara, M. (2014). Emerging self-identities of second language learners: Emotions and the experiential profile of identity construction. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 206–231). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moskovsky, C., Assulaimani, T., Racheva, S., & Harkins, J. (2016). The L2 motivational self system and L2 achievement: A study of Saudi EFL learners. The Modern Language Journal, 100, 641–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Munezane, Y. (2013). Attitudes, affect and ideal L2 self as predictors of willingness to communicate. In L. Roberts, A. Ewert, M. Pawlak, & M. Wrembel (Eds.), EUROSLA yearbook (pp. 176–198). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  63. Nagle, C. (2018). Motivation, comprehensibility, and accentedness in L2 Spanish: Investigating motivation as a time-varying predictor of pronunciation development. The Modern Language Journal, 102, 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nitta, R., & Baba, K. (2015). Self-regulation in the evolution of the ideal L2 self: A complex dynamic systems approach to the L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 367–398). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  65. Noels, K. A. (2009). The internalization of language learning into the self and social identity. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 295–313). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  66. Oettingen, G., & Reininger, K. M. (2016). The power of prospection: Mental contrasting and behavior change. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10, 591–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Olsen, M. (2017). Motivation, learner attrition, and the L2 motivational self system: A New Zealand study of heritage and non-heritage university language learners. PhD dissertation, Otago University, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  68. Papi, M. (2010). The L2 motivational self system, L2 anxiety, and motivated behavior: A structural equation modeling approach. System, 38, 467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Papi, M., Bondarenko, A., Mansouri, S., Feng, L., & Jiang, C. (2018). Rethinking L2 motivation: The 2 × 2 model of self-guides. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Piniel, K., & Csizér, K. (2015). Changes in motivation, anxiety and self-efficacy during the course of an academic writing seminar. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 164–194). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  71. Polat, N. (2014). The interaction of the L2 motivational self system with socialisation and identification patterns and L2 accent attainment. In K. Csizér & M. Magid (Eds.), The impact of self-concept on language learning (pp. 268–285). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ryan, S. (2008). The ideal L2 selves of Japanese learners of English. PhD dissertation, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  73. Sato, M., & Lara, P. (2019). Interaction vision intervention to increase second language motivation: A classroom study. In M. Sato & S. Loewen (Eds.), Evidence-based second language pedagogy: A collection of instructed second language acquisition studies (pp. 287–313). New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Segalowitz, N., Gatbonton, E., & Trofimovich, P. (2009). Links between ethnolinguistic affiliation, self-related motivation and second language fluency: Are they mediated by psycholinguistic variables? In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 172–192). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  75. Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self system among Japanese, Chinese and Iranian learners of English: A comparative study. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 66–97). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  76. Taylor, F. (2014). Self and identity in adolescent foreign language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, F., Busse, V., Gagova, L., Marsden, E., & Roosken, B. (2013). Identity in foreign language learning and teaching: Why listening to our students’ and teachers’ voices really does matter. London, UK: British Council.Google Scholar
  78. Teimouri, Y. (2017). L2 selves, emotions, and motivated behaviors. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39, 681–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thompson, S. A., & Liu, Y. (2018). Multilingualism and emergent selves: Context, languages, and the anti-ought-to self. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1452892.
  80. Thorsen, C., Henry, A., & Cliffordson, C. (2017). The case of a missing person? The current L2 self and the L2 motivational self system. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1388356.
  81. Ushioda, E. (1998). Effective motivational thinking: A cognitive theoretical approach to the study of language learning motivation. In E. A. Soler & V. C. Espurz (Eds.), Current issues in English language methodology (pp. 77–89). Castelló de la Plana, Spain: Universitat Jaume I.Google Scholar
  82. Ushioda, E. (2009). A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation, self and identity. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushoda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 215–228). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  83. Ushioda, E. (2017). The impact of global English on motivation to learn other languages: Towards an ideal multilingual self. The Modern Language Journal, 101, 469–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ushioda, E., & Dörnyei, Z. (2017). Beyond global English: Motivation to learn languages in a multicultural world (Introduction to the Special Issue). The Modern Language Journal, 101, 451–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yashima, T. (2000). Orientations and motivation in foreign language learning: A study of Japanese college students. JACET Bulletin, 31, 121–133.Google Scholar
  86. Yashima, T. (2009). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese EFL context. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 144–163). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  87. You, C. J., & Chan, L. (2015). The dynamics of L2 imagery in future motivational self-guides. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre, & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 397–418). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  88. You, C. J., Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. (2016). Motivation, vision, and gender: A survey of learners of English in China. Language Learning, 66, 94–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kata Csizér
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of HumanitiesEötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations