Advertisement

EFL Learning Motivation in Korea: Historical Background and Current Situation

  • Tae-Young Kim
  • Youngmi Kim
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter deals with motivations for English learning in Korea from two major angles: historical context and motivational changes that occur at each educational stage. In Part I, socio-historical incidents in Korea that impacted students’ motivations for learning English are examined, and reasons for the historical increase in competitive motivations, or for students’ desire to attain superior social status over their peers, are investigated. In Part II, motivational changes are discussed in chronological order as learners advance through school from elementary to junior high, high school, and eventually college level. For each educational stage, salient subcomponents of students’ motivational profiles are identified and analyzed, with specific attention paid to major historical incidents. Finally, a summary is provided and future directions for research are suggested.

References

  1. Ahn, T. Y., Kim, T.-E., & Roh, W.-K. (2015). Research on the gap between elementary and middle school classroom instruction: An analysis of the English classroom. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 15(5), 159–186.Google Scholar
  2. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cho, Y.-A., & Chung, H. Y. (2014). Demotivation and remotivation affecting L2 English learning of Korean college students. The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature, 27(2), 387–408.Google Scholar
  4. Choi, I. C. (2008). The impact of EFL testing on EFL education in Korea. Language Testing, 25(1), 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi, Y.-H. (2006). Impact of politico-economic situations on English language education in Korea. English Teaching, 61(4), 3–26.Google Scholar
  6. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
  8. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gan, Z. (2009). ‘Asian learners’ re-examined: An empirical study of language learning attitudes, strategies and motivation among mainland Chinese and Hong Kong students. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30(1), 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitude and motivation. London, UK: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  13. Hwang, J. (2013). A case study of motivation types and motivation changes in the college EFL classroom. Journal of the Korea English Education Society, 12(1), 97–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hwang, Y. (2014). The history of American English education in Korea: Reflection and new direction. The Korean Journal of American History, 40, 201–238.Google Scholar
  15. Jang, I. C. (2015). Language learning as a struggle for distinction in today’s corporate recruitment culture: An ethnographic study of English study abroad practices among south Korean undergraduates. L2 Journal, 7(3), 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jo, H.-Y. (2015). A study on the college students’ beliefs on the importance of English ability in the process of career and employment preparation. Journal of Employment and Career, 5(4), 29–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jung, S. K. (2011). Demotivating and remotivating factors in learning English: A case of low level college students. English Teaching, 66(2), 47–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jung, Y.-J. (2015). Korean elementary school learners L2 motivational self system and the moderating effects of gender and grade differences. The Journal of Linguistics Science, 74, 253–282.Google Scholar
  19. Kang, J. (2009). Atrocious history of university admission war. Seoul, Korea: Inmulgwa Sasangsa.Google Scholar
  20. Kikuchi, K. (2015). Demotivation in second language acquisition: Insights from Japan. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim, C.-N. (2014). The present conditions of high school foreign language instruction. Research of Japanese Culture, 52, 101–118.Google Scholar
  22. Kim, J.-C. (2003). French education in secondary schools in Korea. 2003 French Language and Literature Education in Korea Conference (pp. 17–41).Google Scholar
  23. Kim, J.-E. (2014). “‘Je 2oegug-eo’ pudaejeob, haedo neomuhae” [decline of second language education]. Retrieved from http://weekly.donga.com/List/3/all/11/98140/1o
  24. Kim, J.-R. (2014). Continuity problems of elementary and secondary English education: Sequence analysis of English textbooks. Language Research, 50(1), 161–184.Google Scholar
  25. Kim, K. J. (2014). A structural model of demotivational factors affecting English achievement for middle school students. Journal of the Korea English Education Society, 13(3), 41–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim, M., Choi, D.-I., & Kim, T.-Y. (2019). South Korean jobseekers’ perception and (de)motivation to study for standardized English tests in neoliberal corporate labor markets. The Asian EFL Journal, 21(1), 84–109.Google Scholar
  27. Kim, M.-B. (2006). A tale of English in the enlightenment period in Korea. Seoul, Korea: International Graduate School of English Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kim, S. H. (2017). Analysis of changes in the 2015 revised National English Curriculum. Modern English Education, 18(3), 91–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim, S.-I., Yoon, M., & So, Y.-H. (2008). Academic interests of Korean students: Description, diagnosis, and prescription. Korean Journal of Psychological and Social Issues, 14(1), 187–221.Google Scholar
  30. Kim, T.-Y. (2006). Motivation and attitudes toward foreign language learning as socio-politically mediated constructs: The case of Korean high school students. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 3(2), 165–192.Google Scholar
  31. Kim, T.-Y. (2010). Socio-political influences on EFL motivation and attitudes: Comparative surveys of Korean high school students. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11, 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim, T.-Y. (2011). Korean elementary school students’ English learning demotivation: A comparative survey study. Asia Pacific Education Review, 12, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kim, T. Y. (2012). The L2 motivational self system of Korean EFL students: Cross-grade survey analysis. English Teaching, 67(1), 29–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kim, T.-Y. (2015). The sociocultural meaning of English learning and its implication to English education: Four sociological approaches. Studies in English Language & Literature, 41(3), 105–134.Google Scholar
  35. Kim, T.-Y. (2016). An investigation of socio-educational aspects of English education during Japanese colonial period: Focusing on Chosun Ilbo and Donga Daily articles. Studies in English Education, 21(1), 179–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim, T.-Y. (2017). EFL learning motivation and influence of private education: Cross-grade survey results. English Teaching, 72(3), 25–46.Google Scholar
  37. Kim, T.-Y., & Kim, Y.-K. (2015). Elderly Korean learners’ participation in English learning through lifelong education: Focusing on motivation and demotivation. Educational Gerontology, 41(2), 120–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim, Y., & Kim, J. (2016). An analysis of English needs of Korean adult learners: Focusing on students in K cyber university. English Language Teaching, 28(3), 63–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim, Y.-C. (2011). English, enlightening Joseon. Seoul, Korea: Ely.Google Scholar
  40. Kim-Rivera, E. G. (2002). English language education in Korea under Japanese colonial rule. Language Policy, 1(3), 261–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kwon, J.-H. (1999). The present conditions of Germany education in high schools in Korea. Germany Education, 17, 31–47.Google Scholar
  42. Kwon, O. (2000). Korea’s education policy changes in the 1990s: Innovations to gear the nation for the 21st century. English Teaching, 55(1), 47–91.Google Scholar
  43. Kwon, O., & Kim, J.-R. (2010). History of English education in Korea. Seoul, Korea: Hangookmunwhasa.Google Scholar
  44. Lee, G.-R., & Hwang, J.-B. (2017). A study on demotivating factors in Korean high school students’ English language learning. Secondary English Education, 10(2), 43–73.Google Scholar
  45. Lee, H.-W. (1996). The effect of attitudes and motivation on learning English in Korean middle and high school students. English Teaching, 51(2), 3–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee, J. K. (1999). Historic factors affecting educational administration in Korean higher education. Higher Education Review, 32(1), 7–23.Google Scholar
  47. Lee, K.-S. (2017). The birth of exam-oriented people. Seoul, Korea: Pooreunyeoksa.Google Scholar
  48. Lee, Y., & Ahn, K. (2013). English learning motivation and English academic achievement of Korean elementary school students: The effects of L2 selves, international posture, and family encouragement. Modern English Education, 14(1), 127–152.Google Scholar
  49. Lee, Y. J., & Koo, H. (2006). ‘Wild geese fathers’ and a globalised family strategy for education in Korea. International Development Planning Review, 28(4), 533–553.Google Scholar
  50. Ma, J. H., & Cho, Y. A. (2014). The analysis of demotivators and remotivators for Korean L2 English learners. Studies on English Language & Literature, 40(2), 137–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marginson, S. (2011). Higher education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian model. Higher Education, 61(5), 587–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Murray, B. (2007). Classroom motivation of Korean EFL students from the perspective of self-determination theory. English Teaching, 62(4), 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Park, E.-S. (2012). Korean middle school students’ English learning motivation and their perception of teacher factor. Studies in English Education, 17(2), 71–93.Google Scholar
  54. Park, E.-S. (2013). A study of university students’ private English learning and their perceptions toward learning experience: With the special reference to Busan and Kyunganam regions. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 13(6), 87–10.Google Scholar
  55. Park, J. K. (2009). ‘English fever’ in South Korea: Its history and symptoms. English Today, 25(1), 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Park, J. S.-Y. (2011). The promise of English: Linguistic capital and the neoliberal worker in the south Korean job market. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(4), 443–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Park, K.-H. (2017). “A yesnal-iyeo” jeomul-eo ganeun toighag-won, sinsa-eob anganhim [Decline of TOEIC industry, trying new business]. Retrieved from http://www.edaily.co.kr/news/NewsRead.edy?SCD=JC61&newsid=01312006615962376&DCD=A00306&OutLnkChk=Y
  58. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Seth, M. J. (2002). Education fever: Society, politics, and the pursuit of schooling in South Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  60. Shin, H. (2016). Language ‘skills’ and the neoliberal English education industry. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(5), 509–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Song, J. (2010). Language ideology and identity in transnational space: Globalization, migration, and bilingualism among Korean families in the USA. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(1), 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Song, J. J. (2012). South Korea: Language policy and planning in the making. Current Issues in Language Planning, 13(1), 1–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Trang, T. T. T., & Baldauf, R. B. (2007). Demotivation: Understanding resistance to English language learning-the case of Vietnamese students. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 4(1), 79–105.Google Scholar
  64. Ushioda, E. (1998). Effective motivational thinking: A cognitive theoretical approach to the study of language learning motivation. In E. A. Soler & V. C. Espurz (Eds.), Current issues in English language methodology (pp. 77–89). Catello de la Plana, Spain: Universitat Jaume I.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tae-Young Kim
    • 1
  • Youngmi Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Chung-Ang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations