Education and Training as a Disruptive Dual Use Technology
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Scientific and technical education can have dual uses, with both peaceful and WMD applications. Examples include Iraqi engineering students in the 1970’s learning skills that would later be useful in Saddam Hussein’s nuclear weapons programs, and A. Q. Khan, who went from European degrees in metallurgy to stealing URENCO centrifuge technology and leading Pakistan’s program. Engineering and scientific education in proliferation-related fields should be controlled as are tangible dual use materials and technologies, and denied to citizens of countries likely to be proliferation risks.
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