Advertisement

Reoperative Anti-Reflux Surgery and Revisional Paraesophageal Hernias

  • Frank J. Borao
  • Brian J. Shea
  • Shabiah C. Martin
  • Jonathan M. Decker
  • Anthony J. Squillaro
Chapter

Abstract

With growing concern over the side effects of long-term proton pump inhibitor use, the surgical management of reflux disease has recently become increasingly popular, especially with the development of the laparoscopic approach. Anti-reflux surgery and paraesophageal hernia repair require technical expertise. These operations have a known failure rate over time, and many patients will go on to require a subsequent intervention. Patients with development of new symptoms after surgery or worsening symptoms should be evaluated for a revisional operation. The workup of these patients can often guide management and surgical planning and may aid in identifying patients that will respond to medical therapy. Once the decision is made to take the patient to the operating room, reoperative surgery can present challenges with difficult dissection and alterations in anatomy. Essential operative steps should include efforts to restore “normal” anatomy, which can include taking down the fundoplication and cruroplasty, evaluation for a short esophagus, recreating the fundoplication, posterior cruroplasty with or without biologic mesh reinforcement, and intraoperative endoscopy. The following chapter will detail the workup for a patient being evaluated for revisional anti-reflux surgery or a patient with a recurrent paraesophageal hernia, as well as essential operative steps and outcomes.

Keywords

Anti-reflux Revisional Reoperative Paraesophageal hernia Biologic mesh Fundoplication 

References

  1. 1.
    Cohen E, Bolus R, Khanna D, et al. GERD symptoms in the general population: prevalence and severity versus care-seeking patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2014;59(10):2488–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Everhart JE. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Everheart JE, editor. The burden of digestive diseases in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Mational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2008. NIH publication No. 09-6443.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eusebi LH, Rabitti S, Artesiani ML. Proton pump inhibitors: risks of long term use. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32(7):1295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heidelbaugh JJ, Kim AH, Chang R, et al. Overutilization of proton-pump inhibitors: what the clinician needs to know. Ther Adv Gastroenterol. 2012;5(4):219–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Neill LW, Culpepper BL, Galdo JA. Long-term consequences of chronic proton pump inhibitor use. US Pharm. 2013;38(12):38–42.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gawron AJ, French DD, Pandolfino JE, et al. Economic evaluations of gastroesophageal reflux disease medical management: a systematic review. PharmacoEconomics. 2014;32(8):745–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kahrilas PJ, Jonsson A, Denison H, et al. Regurgitation is less responsive to acid suppression than heartburn in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10(6):612–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Isolauri J, Luostarinen M, Viljakka M, et al. Long-term comparison of antireflux surgery versus conservative therapy for reflux esophagitis. Ann Surg. 1997;225(3):295–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rossi M, Barreca M, de Bartoli N. Efficacy of Nissen fundoplication versus medical therapy in the regression of low-grade dysplasia in patients with Barrett esophagus. Ann Surg. 2006;243(1):58–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wetscher GJ, Gadenstaetter M, Klingler PJ, et al. Efficacy of medical therapy and antireflux surgery to prevent Barrett’s metaplasia in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ann Surg. 2001;234:627.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Qu H, Liu Y, He QS. Short and long-term results of laparoscopic versus open anti-reflux surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Gastrointest Surg. 2014;18(6):1077–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salminen P, Hurme S, Ovaska J. Fifteen-year outcome of laparoscopic and open Nissen fundoplication: a randomized clinical trial. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93(1):228–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhou T, Harnsberger C, Fuchs H, et al. Reoperation rates after laparoscopic fundoplication. Surg Endosc. 2015;29(3):510–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Coelho JC, Conçalves CG, Claus CM, et al. Late laparoscopic reoperation of failed antireflux procedures. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2004;14(3):113–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Catania RA, Kavic SM, Roth JS, et al. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication effectively relieves symptoms in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11(12):1579–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Furnée EJB, Draaìsma WA, Broeders AIMJ, et al. Surgical reintervention after failed antireflux surgery: a systematic review of the literature. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13(3):1539–49.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weitzendorfer M, Köhler G, Antoniou SA, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of a hiatal hernia: barium swallow X ray, high-resolution manometry, or endoscopy? Eur Surg. 2017;49(5):210–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang YT, Tai LF, Yazaki E, et al. Investigation of dysphagia after antireflux surgery by high-resolution manometry: impact of multiple water swallows and a solid test meal on diagnosis, management, and clinical outcome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13(9):1575–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wetscher GJ, Glaser K, Weischemeyer T, et al. Tailored antireflux surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease: effectiveness and risk of postoperative dysphagia. World J Surg. 1997;21(6):605–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lund RJ, Wetscher GJ, Raiser F, et al. Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease with poor esophageal body motility. J Gastrointest Surg. 1997;1(4):301–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chan WW, Haroian LR, Gyawali CP. Value of preoperative esophageal function studies before laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(9):2943–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rydberg L, Ruth M, Abrahamsson H, et al. Tailoring antireflux surgery: a randomized clinical trial. World J Surg. 1999;23(6):612–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fuchs HF, Gutschow CA, Brinkmann S, et al. Effect of laparoscopic antireflux surgery on esophageal motility. Dig Surg. 2014;31(4–5):354–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roman S, Kahrilas PJ, Kia L, Luger D, Soper N, Pandolfino JE. Effects of large hiatal hernias on esophageal peristalsis. Arch Surg. 2012;147:352–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khajanchee YS, Hong D, Hansen PD, et al. Outcomes of antireflux surgery in patients with normal preoperative 24-hour pH test results. Am J Surg. 2004;187(5):599–603.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ward MA, Dunst CM, Teitelbaum EN, et al. Impedance-pH monitoring on medications does not reliably confirm the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients referred for antireflux surgery. Surg Endosc. 2018;32(2):889–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patel A, Sayuk GS, Gyawali CP. Parameters on esophageal pH-impedance monitoring that predict outcomes of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13(5):884–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    van Rijn S, Rinsma NF, van Herwaarden-Lindeboom MYA, Ringers J, et al. Efect of vagus nerve integrity on short and long-term efficacy of antireflux surgery. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111:505–18.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yolsuriyanwong K, Marcotte E, Venu M, et al. Impact of vagus nerve integrity on surgical management in patients with previous operations with potential risk of vagal injury. Surg Endosc. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-0186562-9.
  30. 30.
    Hatch KF, Daily MF, Christensen BJ, et al. Failed fundoplications. Am J Surg. 2004;188(6):786–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mnjarez RC, Jobe BA. Surgical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. GI Motil Online. 2006.  https://doi.org/10.1038/gimo56.
  32. 32.
    Hinder RA. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Bell RH Jr, Rikkers LF, Mulholland MW, eds. Digestive tract surgery: a text and atlas. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; 1996:19.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Donkervoort SC, Bais JE, Rijnhart-de Jong H, et al. Impact of anatomical wrap position on the outcome of Nissen fundoplication. Br J Surg. 2003;90(7):854–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Horgan S, Pohl D, Bogetti D, et al. Failed antireflux surgery: what have we learned from reoperations? Arch Surg. 1999;134(8):809–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Iqbal A, Awad Z, Simkins J, et al. Repair of 104 failed antireflux operations. Ann Surg. 2006;244(1):42–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Awad ZT, Anderson PI, Sato K, et al. Laparoscopic reoperative antireflux surgery. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:1401–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Heniford BT, Matthews BD, Kercher KW, et al. Surgical experience in fifty-five consecutive reoperative fundoplications. Am Surg. 2002;68(11):949–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Edye M, Salky B, Posner A, et al. Sac excision is essential to adequate laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia. Surg Endosc. 1998;12(10):1259–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Watson DI, Davies N, Devitt PG, et al. Importance of dissection of the hernial sac in laparoscopic surgery for large hiatal hernias. Arch Surg. 1999;134(10):1069–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Byrne JP, Smithers BM, Nathanson LK, et al. Symptomatic and functional outcome after laparoscopic reoperation for failed antireflux surgery. Br J Surg. 2005;92(8):996–1001.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pennathur A, Awais O, Luketich JD. Minimally invasive redo antireflux surgery: lessons learned. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89(6):S2174–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Légner A, Tsuboi K, Bathla L, et al. Reoperative antireflux surgery for dysphagia. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(4):1160–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Watson DI, Jamieson GG, Devitt PG. A prospective, randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with anterior vs posterior hiatal repair. Arch Surg. 2001;136(7):745–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wijnhoven BPL, Watson DI, Devitt PG, et al. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with anterior versus posterior hiatal repair: long-term results of a randomized trial. Am J Surg. 2008;195:61–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chew CR, Jamieson GG, Devitt PG, et al. Prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with anterior cersus posterior hiatal repair: late outcomes. World J Surg. 2011;35(9):2038–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bradley DD, Louie BE, Farivar AS, et al. Assessment and reduction of diaphragmatic tension during hiatal hernia repair. Surg Endosc. 2015;29(4):796–804.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Greene CL, DeMeester SR, Zehetner J, et al. Diaphragmatic relaxing incisions during laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair. Surg Endosc. 2013;27(12):4532–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alicuben ET, Worrell SG, DeMeester SG, et al. Impact of crural relaxing incisions, Collis gastroplasy, and non-cross-linked human dermal mesh crural reinforcement on early hiatal hernia recurrence rates. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;219(5):988–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crespin OM, Yates RB, Martin AV, et al. The use of crural relaxing incisions with biologic mesh reinforcement during laparoscopic repair of complex hiatal hernias. Surg Endosc. 2016;30(6):2179–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tatum RP, Shalhub S, Oelschlager BK, et al. Complications of PTFE mesh at the diaphragmatic hiatus. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12(5):953–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stadlhuber RF, Sherif AE, Mittal SK, et al. Mesh complications after prosthetic reinforcement of hiatal closure. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(6):1219–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Park AE, Hoogerboord CM, Sutton E. Use of the falciform ligament flap for closure of the esophageal hiatus in giant paraesophageal hernia. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16(7):1417–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Grossman RA, Brody FJ, Schoolfield CS, et al. Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair with falciform ligament buttress. J Gastrointest Surg. 2018;22(7):1144–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ghanem O, Doyle C, Sebastian R, et al. New surgical approach for giant paraesophageal hernia repair: closure of the esophageal hiatus anteriorly using the left triangular ligament. Dig Surg. 2015;32:124–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Johnson JM, Carbnell AM, Carmody BJ, et al. Laparoscopic mesh hiatoplasty for paraesophageal hernias and fundoplications. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(3):362–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Frantzides CT, Carlson MA, Loizides S, et al. Hiatal hernia repair with mesh: a survey of SAGES members. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(5):1017–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Oelschlager BK, Pellegrini CA, Hunter J, et al. Biologic prosthesis reduces recurrence after laparoscopic paraesophageal henria repair. Ann Surg. 2006;244(4):481–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Oelschlager BK, Pellegrini CA, Hunter J, et al. Biologic prosthesis to prevent recurrence after laparoscopic paraesophageal henria repair: long-term follow-up from a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;213(4):461–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Puri V, Jacobsen K, Bell JM, et al. Hiatal hernia repair with or without esophageal lengthening: is there a difference? Innovations (Phila). 2013;8(5):341–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Steichen FM. Abdominal approach to the Collis gastroplasty and Nissen fundoplication. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1986;162(3):272–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Terry ML, Vernon A, Hunter JG. Stapled-wedge Collis gastroplasty for the shortened esophagus. Am J Surg. 2004;188(2):195–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bellevue O, Louie B, Jutric Z, et al. A Hill gastropexy combined with Nissen fundoplication appears equivalent to a Collis-Nissen in the management of short esophagus. J Gastrointest Surg. 2018;22(3):389–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bell RCW, Hanna P, Powers B, et al. Clinical and manometric results of laparoscopic partial (Toupet) and complete (Rosetti-Nissen) fundoplication. Surg Endosc. 1996;10(7):724–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zornig C, Strate U, Fibbe C, et al. Nissen vs toupet laparoscopic fundoplication. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(5):758–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Strate U, Emmermann A, Fibbe C, et al. Laparoscopic fundoplication: Nissen versus Toupet two-year outcome of a prospective randomized study of 200 patients regarding preoperative esophageal motility. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(1):21–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lundell L, Abrahamsson H, Ruth M, et al. Long-term results of a prospective randomized comparison of total fundic wrap (Nissen-Rossetti) or semifundoplication (Toupet) for gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br J Surg. 1996;83(6):830–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tian Z, Wang B, Shan C, et al. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare long-term outcomes of Nissen and Toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. PLoS One. 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127627.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Broeders JAJL, Mauritz FA, Ahmed Ali U, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of laparoscopic Nissen (posterior total) versus Toupet (posterior partial) fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Br J Surg. 2010;97(9):1318–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nikolic M, Schwameis K, Semmler G, et al. Persistent dysphagia is a rare problem after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Surg Endosc. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6396-5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schwameis K, Zehetner J, Rona K, et al. Post-Nissen dysphagia and bloating syndrome: outcomes after conversion to Toupet fundoplication. J Gastrointest Surg. 2017;21(3):441–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Patterson EJ, Herron DM, Hansen PD, et al. Effect of an esophageal bougie on the incidence of dysphagia following Nissen fundoplication. Arch Surg. 2000;135(9):1055–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Novitsky YW, Kercher KW, Callery MP, et al. Is the use of a bougie necessary for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication? Arch Surg. 2002;137(4):402–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Somasekar K, Morris-Stiff G, Al-Madfai H, et al. Is a bougie required for the performance of the fundal wrap during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication? Surg Endosc. 2010;24(2):390–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Estimate of Bariatric Surgery Numbers, 2011–2017. American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, 26 June 2018, asmbs.org/resources/estimate-of-bariatric-surgery-numbers.
  75. 75.
    Genco A, Soricelli E, Casella G, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a possible, underestimated long-term complication. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2017;13(4):568–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Oor JE, Roks DJ, Üniü Ç, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Surg. 2016;211(1):250–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gagner M, Hutchinson C, Rosenthal R. Fifth international consensus conference: current status of sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016;12(4):750–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Smith SC, Edwards CB, Goodman GN. Symptomatic and clinical improvement in morbidly obese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease following Roux-En-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 1997;7(6):479–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Madalosso CA, Gurski RR, Callegari-Jacques SM, et al. The impact of gastric bypass on gastroesophageal reflux disease in morbidly obese patients. Ann Surg. 2016;263(1):110–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tai CM, Lee YC, Wu MS, et al. The effect of Roux-En-Y gastric bypass on gastroesophageal reflux disease in morbidly obese Chinese patients. Obes Surg. 2008;19(5):565–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Prachand VN, Alverdy JC. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and severe obesity: fundoplication or bariatric surgery? World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(30):3757–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shada AL, Stem M, Funk LM, et al. Concurrent bariatric surgery and paraesophageal hernia repair: comparison of sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-En-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018;14(1):8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Duinhouwe LE, Biter LU, Wijnhoven BP, et al. Treatment of Giant hiatal hernia by laparoscopic Roux-En-Y gastric bypass. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015;9:44–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dakour Aridi H, Asali M, Fouani T, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with concomitant hiatal hernia repair: an unresolved question. Obes Surg. 2017;27(11):2898–904.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Al-Sanea O, Al-garzaie A, Dernaika M, et al. Rare complication post sleeve gastrectomy: acute irreducible paraesophageal hernia. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015;8:88–91.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Amor IB, Debs T, Kassir R, et al. De novo hiatal hernia of the gastric tube after sleeve gastrectomy. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015;14:75–80.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Azagury DE, Varban O, Tavakkilozadeh A, et al. Does laparoscopic gastric banding create hiatal hernias? Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2013;9(1):48–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Saber AA, Shoar S, Khoursheed M. Intra-thoracic sleeve migration (ITSM): an underreported phenomenon after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Obes Surg. 2017;27(8):1917–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Müller-Stich BP, Kenngott HG, Gondan M, et al. Use of mesh in laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair: a meta-analysis and risk-benefit analysis. PLoS One. 2014;10(10):e0139547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fitzgerald JF, Kumar AS. Biologic versus synthetic mesh reinforcement: what are the pros and cons? Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2014;27(4):140–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Anderson JM, Rodriguez A, Chang DT. Foreign body reaction to biomaterials. Semin Immunol. 2007;20(2):86–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Baylón K, Rodríguez-Camarillo P, Elías-Zúñiga A, et al. Past, present and future of surgical meshes: a review. Membranes (Basel). 2017;7(3):47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jones R, Simorov A, Lomelin D, et al. Long-term outcomes of radiologic recurrence after paraesophageal hernia repair with mesh. Surg Endosc. 2015;29(2):425–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hall T, Warnes N, Kuchta K, et al. Patient-centered outcomes after laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair. J Am Coll Surg. 2018;227(1):106–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wu JS, Dunnegan DL, Soper NJ. Clinical and radiological assessment of laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair. Surg Endosc. 1999;13(5):497–502.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Singhal S, Kirkpatrick D, Masuda T, et al. Primary and redo antireflux surgery: outcomes and lessons learned. J Gastrointest Surg. 2018;22(2):177–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Khajanchee YS, O’Rourke R, Cassera M, et al. Laparoscopic reintervention for failed antireflux surgery: subjective and objective outcomes in 176 consecutive patients. Arch Surg. 2007;142(8):785–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dallemagne B, Arenas Sanchez M, Francart D, et al. Long-term results after laparoscopic reoperation for failed antireflux procedures. Br J Surg. 2011;98(11):1581–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wilshere CL, Louie BE, Shultz D, et al. Clinical outcomes of reoperation for failed antireflux operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;101(4):1290–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank J. Borao
    • 1
  • Brian J. Shea
    • 2
  • Shabiah C. Martin
    • 2
  • Jonathan M. Decker
    • 2
  • Anthony J. Squillaro
    • 3
  1. 1.Monmouth Medical CenterDirector of Minimally Invasive SurgeryLong BranchUSA
  2. 2.Monmouth Medical Center, Department of SurgeryLong BranchUSA
  3. 3.Monmouth Medical CenterDepartment of Thoracic SurgeryLong BranchUSA

Personalised recommendations