Advertisement

Grace: Opposing Experiences of Two Mediations: The Importance of Parties’ Openness and Insight

  • Timea Tallodi
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents the fine-grained analysis of the story of Grace, a highly experienced subordinate who has been working with children at a public organisation in England. The analysis reports Grace’s conflict with two colleagues in a managerial role and her opposing lived experiences of the two mediations. Grace’s perceptions of organisational injustice deriving from ‘being different’ and leading to discrimination and ostracism are explored as the core of conflict. On one hand, mediation is portrayed as a protective environment to stand up for oneself, but as an experience that leads to the understanding of ‘insurmountable differences’ and a need to move on. On the other hand, mediation is depicted as the process of revealing vulnerabilities and a rich account of ‘opening up as a spiral’ is provided. Grace’s contrasting experiences in her two mediations and the key factors responsible for the differences between the processes, including openness and commitment to the process, are analysed.

References

  1. Alexander, N. (2008). The mediation metamodel: Understanding practice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 26, 97–123.  https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beer, J. E., & Packard, C. C. (2012). The mediator’s handbook (4th ed.). Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, M. D., & Hughes, S. S. (2005). The art of mediation. Notre Dame, France: NITA.Google Scholar
  4. Buchanan, D., & Huczynski, A. (2004). Organizational behaviour: An introductory text (5th ed.). Harlow, England: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Coltri, L. S. (2010). Alternative dispute resolution: A conflict diagnosis approach (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. DeWall, C. N. (2009). The pain of exclusion: Using insights from neuroscience to understand emotional and behavioural responses to social exclusion. In M. J. Harris (Ed.), Bullying, rejection, & peer victimization: A social cognitive neuroscience perspective (pp. 201–224). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Ditrich, L., & Sassenberg, K. (2017). Kicking out the trolls – Antecedents of social exclusion intentions in Facebook groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 32–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.04.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dixon, R. (2007). Ostracism: One of the many causes of bullying in groups? Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 3–26.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J202v06n03_02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doherty, N., & Guyler, M. (2008). The essential guide to workplace mediation and conflict resolution: Rebuilding workplace relationships. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  10. Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower., 20(2), 16–27.  https://doi.org/10.1108/01437729910268588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. L. (2003). The concept of bullying at work: The European tradition. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International perspectives in research and practice (pp. 1–30). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  12. Every, D., & Perry, R. (2014). The relationship between perceived religious discrimination and self-esteem for Muslim Australians. Australian Journal of Psychology, 66, 241–248.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feldman, R. S. (1988). Adjustment: Applying social psychology in a complex world. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. Folberg, J., & Taylor, A. (1984). Mediation: A comprehensive guide to resolving conflicts without litigation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172–175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Furunes, T., & Mykletun, R. J. (2010). Age discrimination in the workplace: Validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00738.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldstein, N. J., Vezich, I. S., & Shapiro, J. R. (2014). Perceived perspective taking: When others walk in our shoes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 941–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harris, O. J., & Hartman, S. J. (1992). Human behaviour at work. New York: West Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  19. Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2010). A relative impact of workplace bullying as a social stressor at work. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 426–433.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00813.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hefferon, K., & Gil-Rodriguez, E. (2011). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. The Psychologist, 24, 756–759.Google Scholar
  21. Hoskins, M. L., & Stoltz, J. M. (2003). Balancing on words: Human change processes in mediation. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 20, 331–349.  https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.28 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, D. A. (2009). Getting even with one’s supervisor and one’s organisation: Relationships among types of injustice, desires for revenge and counterproductive work behaviours. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 30, 525–542.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.563 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Judge, T. A., & Colquitt, J. A. (2004). Organizational justice and stress: The mediating role of work family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 394–404.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kals, E., Thiel, K., & Freund, S. (2016). Workplace mediation: Searching for underlying motives and interests. In K. Bollen, M. Euwema, & L. Munduate (Eds.), Advancing workplace mediation through integration of theory and practice (pp. 39–53). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kivimaki, M., Vahtera, J., Elovainio, M., Virtanen, M., & Siegrist, J. (2007). Effort-reward imbalance, procedural injustice and relational injustice as psychosocial predictors of health: Complementary or redundant models? Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64, 659–665.  https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2006.031310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals’ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job, person-organization, person-group, and person-supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58, 281–342.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00672.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Larkin, M., Watts, S., & Clifton, E. (2006). Giving voice and making sense in interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 102–120.  https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp062oa CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53, 381–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lewis, C. (2009). The definitive guide to workplace mediation and managing conflict at work. Weybridge, England: RoperPenberthy Publishing Ltd..Google Scholar
  31. Liebmann, M. (2000). Introduction. In M. Liebmann (Ed.), Mediation in context (pp. 9–19). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Losada, M., & Heaphy, E. (2004). The role of positivity and connectivity in the performance of business teams: A nonlinear dynamics model. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 740–765.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764203260208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MacDonald, G., & Leary, M. R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 202–223.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maiese, M. (2006). Engaging the emotions in conflict intervention. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 24, 187–195.  https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Myers, D., & Twenge, J. M. (2018). Exploring social psychology (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  36. Novembre, G., Zanon, M., & Silani, G. (2014). Empathy for social exclusion involves the sensory-discriminative component of pain: A within-subject fMRI study. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(2), 153–164.  https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Picard, C. A., & Siltanen, J. (2013). Exploring the significance of emotion for mediation practice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 31, 31–55.  https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.21078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rousseau, V., Salek, S., Aubé, C., & Morin, E. M. (2009). Distributive justice, procedural justice, and psychological distress: The moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 305–317.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015747 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saundry, R., Bennett, T., & Wibberley, G. (2013). Workplace mediation: The participant experience (ACAS Research Paper 02/13). London: ACAS.Google Scholar
  40. Schneider, C. D. (2000). What it means to be sorry: The power of apology in mediation. Mediation Quarterly, 17, 265–280.  https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.3900170305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Siegrist, J., Peter, R., Motz, W., & Strauer, B. E. (1992). The role of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and psychosocial risks in cardiovascular disease: Prospective evidence from blue-collar men. European Health Journal, 13, 89–95.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/13.suppl_D.89 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Silbey, S., & Merry, S. E. (1986). Mediator settlement strategies. Law and Policy, 8, 7–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smart Richman, L., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116, 365–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Smith, J. A. (2011). Evaluating the contribution of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5, 9–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2010.510659 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2015). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In J. A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods (3rd ed., pp. 25–53). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Spielberger, C. D., Vagg, P. R., & Wasala, C. F. (2003). Occupational stress: Job pressures and lack of support. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 185–200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stains, R. R. (2012). Reflection for connection: Deepening dialogue through reflective processes. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 30, 33–51.  https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.21053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tepper, B. J. (2001). Health consequences of organizational injustice: Tests of main and interactive effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 197–215.  https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2001.2951 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wesselmann, E. D., Hales, A. H., Ren, D., & Williams, K. D. (2015). Ostracism threatens personal security: A temporal need threat framework. In P. J. Carroll, R. M. Arkin, & A. L. Wichman (Eds.), Handbook of personal security (pp. 191–206). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Whelton, W. J. (2004). Emotional processes in psychotherapy: Evidence across therapeutic modalities. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11, 58–71.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wiesenfeld, B. M., Raghuram, S., & Garud, R. (2001). Organizational identification among virtual workers: The role of need for affiliation and perceived work-based social support. Journal of Management, 27, 213–229.  https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630102700205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 425–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Williams, K. D., Govan, C. L., Croker, V., Tynan, D., Cruickshank, M., & Lam, A. (2002). Investigations into differences between social- and cyberostracism. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 6, 65–77.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.6.1.65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wright, J. C., Giammarino, M., & Parad, H. W. (1986). Social status in small groups: Individual–group similarity and the social ‘misfit’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 523–536.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.3.523 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timea Tallodi
    • 1
  1. 1.School of LawUniversity of EssexColchesterUK

Personalised recommendations