Advertisement

Study of the Microcirculation Through Microscopic Techniques

  • Harry A. J. Struijker-BoudierEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews techniques and methodological aspects of investigating the microcirculation, with a particular emphasis on microscopic techniques. The history of intravital microscopy is briefly introduced, followed by a more detailed description of clinical capillaroscopy. In the last decades several technical innovations advanced the use of hand-held vital microscopes to assess the microcirculation in humans. Non-microscopic methods, such as Laser Doppler flowmetry, tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed to study dynamic, flow-related aspects of the microcirculation.

Keywords

Microcirculation Capillaroscopy Intravital microscopy Imaging techniques 

References

  1. 1.
    Mulvany MJ, Aalkjaer C. Structure and function of small arteries. Physiol Rev. 1990;70:921–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rizzoni D, Agabiti-Rosei C, Agabiti-Rosei E. Hemodynamic consequences of changes in microvascular structure. Am J Hypertens. 2017;30:939–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schiffrin EL. Remodeling of resistance arteries in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:1192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Johnson P. Overview of the microcirculation. In: Tuma RF, Duran WN, Ley K, editors. Handbook of physiology: microcirculation. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leahy MJ. Microcirculation imaging. Weinheim: Wiley Blackwell; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bollinger A, Fagrell B. Clinical capillaroscopy. Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber; 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Müller O. Die Kapillaren der menschlichen Körperoberfläche in gesunden und kranken Tagen. Stuttgart: Enke; 1922.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tuma RF, Duran WN, Ley K. Handbook of physiology: microcirculation. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2008.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levy BI, Ambrosio G, Pries AR, Struijker-Boudier H. Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment? Circulation. 2001;104:735–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Serne EH, Gans RO, Ter Maarten JC, Tangelder GJ, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD. Impaired capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction. Hypertension. 2001;38:238–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levy BI, Schiffrin EL, Mourad JJ, Agostini D, Vicaut E, Safar ME, Struijker-Boudier HA. Impaired tissue perfusion: a pathology common to hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2008;118:968–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strain WD, Adingupu DD, Shore AC. Microcirculation on a large scale: techniques, tactics and relevance of studying the microcirculation in larger population samples. Microcirculation. 2011;19:37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mourad JJ, Levy BI. Mechanisms of anti-angiogenic drug induced hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2011;13:289–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Le Noble FA, Stassen FR, Hacking WJ, Struijker-Boudier H. Angiogenesis and hypertension. J Hypertens. 1998;16:1563–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ocak I, Kara A, Ince C. Monitoring microcirculation. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2016;30:407–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kara A, Akin S, Ince C. Monitoring microcirculation in critical illness. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2016;22:444–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Slaaf DW, Tangelder GJ, Reneman RS. A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp. 1987;6:391–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henzler D, Scheffler M, Westheider A, Köhler T. Microcirculation measurements: barriers for use in clinical routine. Clin Hemorheol Microcric. 2017;67:505–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Struijker-Boudier HA, Rosei AE, Bruneval P, Camici PG, Christ F, Henrion D, Levy BI, Pries A, Vanoverschelde JH. Evaluation of the microcirculation in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:2834–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Roos A, van der Grond J, Mitchell G, Westenberg J. Magnetic resonance imaging of cardiovascular function and the brain: is dementia a cardiovascular driven disease? Circulation. 2017;135:2178–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Cardiovascular Research Institute MaastrichtMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations