Vasospastic Angina

  • Edina Cenko
  • Raffaele BugiardiniEmail author


Vasospastic angina is a form of ischemic heart disease caused by episodes of coronary artery increased focal vasomotor tone occurring typically at rest. Clinically episodes will manifest as angina at rest associated with ST-segment changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG) and promptly relieved by calcium channel antagonist (CCB) or short-acting nitrates. In recent years studies have demonstrated that coronary spasm can occur during physical or emotional stress and episodes could be associated with ST-segment depression on the ECG. Diffuse coronary artery spasm, characterizing vasotonic angina, is a manifestation of endothelial dysfunction involving the entire coronary tree and the coronary microcirculation is the major culprit. These patients will present with symptoms of stable and unstable angina and ST-segment depression on the ECG.


Coronary artery disease Vasospastic angina Vasotonic angina Epicardial vasoconstriction Diffuse coronary spasm Focal coronary spasm 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty MedicineUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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