Introduction: Why This Book?
The determinants of health status depend on public health measures and curative and care services. “Hospitals” as organizations concentrate resources—physical capital and human capital, and technology—and thereby do things which other settings simply cannot. Yet, somehow, they mean different things to different people at different times and different places. Hospitals should be defined by their functions, not by their attributes. It is evident that the trade-off in concentrating resources does not always work out well. We lay out an approach to thinking about the role of hospitals, based around their governance, business models, and system and institutional models of care. We bear in mind contingencies of ownership and payment mechanisms, and pull this all together by reflecting on decision analysis.
KeywordsAttributes Business models Care services Curative services Decision analysis Determinants of health status Functions Governance Hospitals Human capital Models of care Ownership Payment mechanisms Physical capital Public health Resources Technology
- Aiken, L., et al. (2012). Patient Safety, Satisfaction, and Quality of Hospital Care: Cross Sectional Surveys of Nurses and Patients in 12 Countries in Europe and the United States. British Medical Journal, 344. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e1717.
- Arrow, K. J. (1963). Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. The American Economic Review, 53(5), 941–973.Google Scholar
- Busse, R., Geissler, A., Quentin, W., & Wiley, W. (2011). Diagnosis-Related Groups in Europe: Moving Towards Transparency, Efficiency and Quality in Hospitals. Maidenhead: Open University Press. World Health Organization on Behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.Google Scholar
- Center for Global Development Hospitals for Health Working Group. (2015). Better Hospitals, Better Health Systems, Better Health, a Proposal for a Global Hospital Collaborative for Emerging Economies. (Washington) Box 1. What Is a Hospital? Retrieved from http://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/Hospitals%20for%20Health,%20Consultation%20Draft.%209.22.14.pdf.
- Christensen, C. (2009). The Innovator’s Prescription a Disruptive Solution for Healthcare (p. 101). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Cochrane, A. (1971). Effectiveness and Efficiency. Random Reflections on Health Services. London: The Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust. Retrieved from http://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/sites/files/nuffield/publication/Effectiveness_and_Efficiency.pdf.
- de la Maisonneuve, C., & Martins, J. O. (2015). The Future of Health and Long-Term Care Spending. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 2014(1), 61–96.Google Scholar
- Donabedian, A. (1980). Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring, Vol. 1. The Definition of Quality and Approaches to Its Assessment. Ann Arbor: Health Administration Press.Google Scholar
- Dubos, R. (1959). Mirage of Health: Utopias, Progress, and Biological Change. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- Duran, A., Saltman, R. B., & Dubois, H. F. W. (2011). A Framework for Assessing Hospital Governance. In R. B. Saltman, A. Duran, & H. F. W. Dubois (Eds.), Governing Public Hospitals, Reform Strategies and the Movement Towards Institutional Autonomy. Brussels: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Observatory Studies Series No. 25, 38.Google Scholar
- Ettelt, S., Nolte, E., Thomson, S., & Mays, N. (2008). Capacity Planning in Health Care: A Review of the International Experience. International Healthcare Comparisons Network. Copenhagen: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Policy Brief.Google Scholar
- Evans, R., Barer, M., & Marmor, T. (1994). Why Are Some People Healthy and Others Not? New York: Aldine de Gruiter.Google Scholar
- Figueras, J., McKee, M., Lessof, S., Duran, A., & Menabde, N. (2008). Health Systems, Health and Wealth: Assessing the Case for Investing in Health Systems? Tallin Conference. Background Document. Copenhagen: World Health Organization – EURO.Google Scholar
- Herrera, C. A., Rada, G., Kuhn-Barrientos, L., & Barrios, X. (2014). Does Ownership Matter? An Overview of Systematic Reviews of the Performance of Private For-Profit, Private Not-for-Profit and Public Healthcare Providers. PLoS One, 9(12), e93456. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joumard, I., André, C., & Nicq, C. H. (2010). Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Institutions. Paris: OECD, Economics Department Working Papers, No. 769, ECO/WKP (2010)25.Google Scholar
- Kringos, D. S., Boerma, W. G. W., Hutchinson, A., & Saltman, R. B. (2015). Building Primary Care in a Changing Europe. Copenhagen: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Observatory Studies Series No. 38. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK458728/.
- Magretta, J. (2002). Why Business Models Matter. Harvard Business Review, 80(5), 86–92, 133.Google Scholar
- McKee, M., & Healy, J. (Eds.). (2002). Hospitals in a Changing Europe. Buckingham: Open University Press. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.Google Scholar
- McKeown, T. (1965). The Modern Rise of the Population. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
- Miller, T. S. (1997). The Birth of the Hospital in the Byzantine Empire. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, quoted in M. McKee and J. Healy (Eds.), Hospitals in a Changing Europe. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2002, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policie.Google Scholar
- Murray, C. J., & Frenk, J. (2000). A Framework for Assessing the Performance of Health Systems. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(6), 717. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Oxford English Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2018, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/hospital.
- Peters, B. G. (2004). Back to the Centre? Rebuilding the State. In A. Gamble & T. Wright (Eds.), Restarting the State (pp. 130–140). London: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
- Preston, S. H. (1980). Causes and Consequences of Mortality Declines in Less Developed Countries in the Twentieth Century. In R. A. Easterlin (Ed.), Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries (p. 315). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Rechel, B., Erskine, J., Dowdeswell, B., Wright, S., & Mckee, M. (2009a). Capital Investment for Health. Case Studies from Europe. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Observatory Studies Series No. 18.Google Scholar
- Rechel, B., Wright, S., Edwards, N., Dowdeswell, B., & Mckee, M. (2009b). Investing in Hospitals of the Future. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Observatory Studies Series No. 16.Google Scholar
- Saltman, R. B., Duran, A., & Dubois, H. F. W. (Eds.). (2011). Governing Public Hospitals, Reform Strategies and the Movement Towards Institutional Autonomy. Brussels: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Observatory Studies Series No. 25, 38.Google Scholar
- Waters, H., & Hussey, P. (2004). Pricing Health Services for Purchasers: A Review of Methods and Experiences. Washington, DC: The World Bank. HNP Discussion Paper.Google Scholar
- WHO – World Health Organization. (2000). World Health Report 2000. Health System Improving Performance. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- WHO – World Health Organization. (2011). World Health Report 2010. Health System Financing; The Path to Universal Health Coverage. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- WHO – World Health Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2018, from http://www.who.int/hospitals/en/.