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The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C): A Versatile E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

  • Natalie L. Curtis
  • Victor M. Bolanos-GarciaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 93)

Abstract

In the present chapter we discuss the essential roles of the human E3 ubiquitin ligase Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in mitosis as well as the emerging evidence of important APC/C roles in cellular processes beyond cell division control such as regulation of genomic integrity and cell differentiation of the nervous system. We consider the potential incipient role of APC/C dysregulation in the pathophysiology of the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We also discuss how certain Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) viruses take control of the host’s cell division regulatory system through harnessing APC/C ubiquitin ligase activity and hypothesise the plausible molecular mechanisms underpinning virus manipulation of the APC/C. We also examine how defects in the function of this multisubunit protein assembly drive abnormal cell proliferation and lastly argue the potential of APC/C as a promising therapeutic target for the development of innovative therapies for the treatment of chronic malignancies such as cancer.

Keywords

Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) Proteasome Genome instability Mitosis regulation Chromosome segregation Kinetochore 

Abbreviations

Amyloid beta

Ad

Adenovirus

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ADM

Adriamycin

AML

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

APC/C

Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome

ATL

Adult T-cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate

ATR

Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein

Bard1

BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1

BRSK2

Brain-Specific Kinase 2

Bub1

Budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1

Bub3

Budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3

BubR1

Budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles Related 1

CAV

Chicken Anemia Virus

CAV-Apoptin

Chicken Anemia Virus-Apoptin

CBP

Cyclic AMP response element Binding Protein

Cdc5

Cell division cycle 5

Cdc6

Cell division cycle 6

Cdc7

Cell division cycle 7

Cdc20

Cell division cycle 20

Cdc23

Cell division cycle 23

Cdc26

Cell division cycle 26

Cdc27

Cell division cycle 27

Cdc42

Cell division cycle 42

Cdc55

Cell division cycle 55

CDDP

Cisplatin

Cdh1

Cadherin 1

Cdk

Cyclin-dependent kinase

Cdk1

Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

Cdk4

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4

Cdk5

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

Cdt1

Chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1

CENP-E

Centromere-associated Protein E

CENP-F

Centromere-associated Protein F

Chk1

Checkpoint kinase 1

Cik1

Chromosome instability and karyogamy protein 1

CK1

Casein Kinase 1

CK1δ

Casein Kinase 1 delta

CKAP2

Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein 2

cKO

conditional Knockout

Cks1

Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1

CNS

Central Nervous System

co-IP

co-Immunoprecipitation

CPC

Chromosomal Passenger Complex

cryo-EM

cryogenic Electron Microscopy

D-box

Destruction box

DDB1

Damaged DNA Binding protein 1

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

dNTPS

deoxyribonucleotide Triphosphate

dTTP

deoxythymidine Triphosphate

E

Early

E1A

Adenovirus Early region 1A

E2F1

E2F Transcription Factor 1

E2F3

E2F Transcription Factor 3

E4orf4

Early region 4 open reading frame 4

EAA

Excitatory Amino Acid

Ect2

Epithelial cell transforming 2

EHMT2

Euchromatic Histone Lysine Methyltransferase 2

EM

Electron Microscopy

Emi1

Early mitotic inhibitor

ER

Endoplasmic Reticulum

EYA1

Eyes Absent 1

FAN1

FANCD2-Associated Nuclease 1

Fin1

Filaments in between nuclei protein 1

FoxM1

Forkhead box M1

Fzr

Fizzy-related protein homolog

G1

Gap 1

G2

Gap 2

G6PD

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

GCPs

Granule Cell Progenitors

GLP

Glucagon-Like Peptide

GLP1

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

GLS1

Glutaminase 1

GluR1

Glutamate Receptor 1

GSCs

Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

GSH

Glutathione

GSSG

Glutathione disulfide

HAd

Human Adenovirus

HBV

Hepatitis B Virus

HCC

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

HCMV

Human Cytomegalovirus

HECT

Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus

HGyv-Apoptin

Human Gyrovirus-Apoptin

Hmmr

Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor

HPV

Human Papillomaviruses

Hsl1 from yeast

Histone synthetic lethal 1

HTLV-1

Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1

HURP

Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein

Id1

Inhibitor of differentiation 1

Id2

Inhibitor of differentiation 2

IE

Intermediate Early

IE72

Intermediate protein 72

IE86

Intermediate protein 86

IQGAP

IQ motif containing GTPase-Activating Protein 1

IR

Isoleucine Arginine

JAK

Janus Kinase

JNK

C-Jun N-terminal Kinase

kDa

kiloDalton

Kif18A

Kinesin family member 18A

Knl1

Kinetochore scaffold 1

L

Late

LT

Large T antigen

LTP

Long-Term Potentiation

M

Mitosis

Mad1

Mitotic arrest deficient 1

Mad2

Mitotic arrest deficient 2

MAPK

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

MCC

Mitotic Checkpoint Complex

MCPH1

Microcephalin-1

MDC1

Mediator DNA Damage Checkpoint 1

MEFs

Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts

MgcRacGAP

Male germ cell RacGTPase Activating Protein

MOAP-1

Modulator of Apoptosis Protein 1

Mps1

Monopolar spindle 1

mRNA

messenger RNA

NADPH

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate

Nek2A

NIMA-related kinase 2A

NeuroD2

Neurogenic Differentiation factor 2

NFT

Neurofibrillary Tangles

NIPA

Nuclear Interaction Partner of Alk kinase

Nlp

Ninein-like protein

NMDARs

N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors

NPCs

Neural Progenitor Cells

NS5A

Nonstructural protein 5A

NuSAP

Nucleolar Spindle–Associated Protein

ORFV

Orf Virus

p21Cip1

Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1

p27Kip1

Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B

PDAC

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Pds1

Premature dissociation of sisters

PFKFB3

6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase isoform 3

Plk1

Polo-like kinase 1

PML bodies

Promyelocytic Leukaemia bodies

PP2a

Protein Phosphatase 2

PPP

Pentose-Phosphate Pathway

pRb

Retinoblastoma protein

proTAME

pro-tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester

PSD

Postsynaptic Density

Rac1

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1

RAP80

Receptor-Associated Protein 80

Rassf1a

Ras association domain containing family 1 isoform a

RbX1

RING-box protein 1

RbX2

RING-box protein 2

RhoA

Ras homolog gene family member A

RING

Really Interesting New Gene

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

RNAi

RNA interference

Rock2

Rho protein kinase 2

ROS

Reactive Oxygen Species

S

Synthesis

SAC

Spindle Assembly Checkpoint

S. cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

SCF

Skp1-Cullin-1-F-box protein

Sgo1

Shugoshin 1

Shank

SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein

siRNA

small interfering RNA

Six1

Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1

Skp1

S-phase-kinase-associated protein 1

Skp2

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2

SnoN

Ski-related novel protein N

SPOP

Speckle-type POZ Protein

STAT

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

SV40

Simian Virus 40

TACC3

Transforming Acidic Coiled-Coil protein 3

TAME

Tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester

TGCTs

Testicular Germ Cell Tumours

TGF-β

Transforming Growth Factor beta

TK1

Thymidine Kinase

TMPK

Thymidylate Protein Kinase

TNM

TNM classification of malignant tumors

TPR

Tetratricopeptide Repeat

Tpx2

Targeting protein for Xklp2

TRB3

Tribbles homolog 3

TRRAP

Transformation/Transcription domain-Associated protein

Tyc1

Tiny yeast comet 1

Ube2C

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 C

Ube2D

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 D2

UPS1

Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1

USP37

Ubiquitin Specific-processing Protease 37

WES

Whole-Exome Sequencing

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biological and Medical SciencesOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordEngland, UK

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