Immersive Media and Their Future

  • Regina Kaplan-RakowskiEmail author
  • Kay Meseberg
Part of the Educational Media and Technology Yearbook book series (EMTY, volume 42)


Drawing on the deeply engaging characteristics of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR), we refer to these three concepts collectively as “immersive media” (IM). IM are often thought of as new concepts, which may hold true in their integrated, holistic forms. However, the technological and psychological aspects of IM have long been explored, both in the media industry and in education. Through an analysis of the evolution of established media (EM), that is, cinema, TV, radio, and video games, we explore the extent to which past processes in EM development resemble the current trajectory of IM evolution. We infer that with time, IM are likely to join EM and, consequently, they should not be considered solely as a passing trend. An immediate practical implication is that educators should not neglect allocating resources and time to research the potential of IM technology for learning.


Immersive media Virtual reality Educational technology Media industry 


  1. Balio, T. (Ed.). (1985). The American film industry. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brecht, B. (2015). Brecht on Film and Radio. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Burke, R. R. (2018). Virtual reality for marketing research. In Innovative research methodologies in management (pp. 63–82). Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fink, C. (2018). Charlie Fink’s Metaverse – An AR enabled guide to AR & VR. Washington: Cool Blue Media.Google Scholar
  5. Johnson, E. (2015). Virtual reality is ‘The Last Medium,’ says filmmaker and Vrse CEO Chris Milk (Q&A). Retrieved from Scholar
  6. Kapeller, L. (1926). Rundfunk von morgen. Berlin, Germany: Uhu, Ullstein.Google Scholar
  7. König, W. (2004). Volkswagen, Volksempfänger, Volksgemeinschaft: “Volksprodukte” im Dritten Reich, vom Scheitern einer nationalsozialistischen Konsumgesellschaft. Schöningh.Google Scholar
  8. MacGowan, K. (1957). The wide screen of yesterday and tomorrow. The Quarterly of Film Radio and Television, 11(3), 217–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McCluskey, F. D. (1981). DVI, DAVI, AECT: A long view. In J. W. Brown & S. N. Brown (Eds.), Educational media yearbook (p. 1981). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.Google Scholar
  10. McGraw, J., Zhang, W., Luginbuhl, A. D., Takahashi, G., Tasker, R. F., & Chopra, G. (2018). Virtual reality environment to visualize and manipulate molecular structures. Biophysical Journal, 114(3), 184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McIntire, J. P., Havig, P. R., & Geiselman, E. E. (2014). Stereoscopic 3D displays and human performance: A comprehensive review. Displays, 35, 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miège, B. (2003). La contribution des industries de la culture, de l’information et de la communication à l’informationnalisation et à la globalisation. Questions de communication, 3, 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mohammadi, A., Hesami, E., Kargar, M., & Shams, J. (2018). Detecting allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using virtual reality. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 28(3), 398–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Reiser, R. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(1), 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rittaud-Hutinet, J. (1985). Le cinéma des origines: les frères Lumière et leurs opérateurs. Seyssel, France: Editions Champ Vallon.Google Scholar
  16. Rose, F. (2012). The art of immersion: How the digital generation is remaking Hollywood, Madison Avenue, and the way we tell stories. New York: WW Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  17. Saettler, P. (1990). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CO: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Stevens, J. (2018). 5 Virtual reality trends to watch out for in 2018. Retrieved from
  19. Warren, T. (2017). Microsoft says HoloLens sales are in the thousands. Retrieved from
  20. Zuckerberg, M. (2018). Day 1 keynote. F8 keynotes. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Valdosta State UniversityValdostaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Collaborative Arts and Media, Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations