Conclusion: Visions, Divisions, Tensions and Solutions

  • Gijsbert M. van Iterson ScholtenEmail author
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)


In this concluding chapter all visions are summarized and compared, using the peace cube as a conceptual tool. Three main faultlines are identified. First a professional one: governmental peace workers see peace as a limited goal, whereas civil society peaceworkers see it as a holistic process. Second, a geographical divide: Dutch peace workers tend to see peace as a political objective—dubbed ‘Security Council peace’—whereas for peace workers from Lebanon and Mindanao, it is primarily a personal endeavour—they work on ‘UNESCO peace’, or peace in the minds of men and women. Finally, a hierarchical divide: privileged groups tend to work on civil peace, or peace-as-harmony, whereas peaceworkers from marginalized groups favour peace-as-justice. These observations are tied back into the literature on peacebuilding, discussing both the four alternatives to liberal peace identified in Chap.  2, as well as more recent developments such as the notion of sustaining peace.


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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