Political Exile, Labor Markets and Institution-Building
Taking exile labor markets as a category of analysis, this chapter examines how émigrés survived in exile, often in a context of relative poverty. They were often able to find work fairly easily, particularly in journalism, although this varied by country and decade, which shows how the transnational public sphere was anchored in the concrete reality of local labor markets. In the case of émigrés from the Río de la Plata, they formed labor niches in professions associated with nascent republican institution-building and the development of “national” cultural life, in particular in Chile and Bolivia, forming a transnational class of institution-builders across several South American countries. The dynamics of inclusion/exclusion of émigrés in local labor markets underscore the tensions between survival and integration in the exile experience, while also showing the importance of path dependency in explaining differences between émigrés from different countries.