Political Displacement and Independence: Commerce, Indigenous Peoples and Exile (1810–1839)
This chapter looks at political displacement during the independence period (1810–1830), placing it firmly in the context of colonial patterns of mobility as well as Spanish penal practices. Exile networks rapidly formed as a consequence of the wars of independence and the civil wars that followed, following the trade routes shaped by merchants, migrants and indigenous peoples. In this early exile period, borders and political identities were uncertain, and political displacement—and the repression of exile activities—played a key role in their emergence. From displacement across administrative jurisdictions, banishment turned into to what it recognizably is today, a tool for removing individuals perceived as dangerous from a state-controlled territory. Exile as flight also emerged, as did sites of exile where asylum was offered regularly. This set the stage for the evolution of the practice of exile over the following decades.