Testicular Cancer: this chapter outlines the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, investigations, treatments and prognosis of cancer at this anatomical site. These features are correlated with the core data that are required to make corresponding histopathology reports of a consistently high quality, available in an appropriate timeframe, and clinically relevant to patient management and prognosis. Summary details of the common cancers given at this site include: gross description, histological types, tumour grade/differentiation, extent of local tumour spread, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and the status of excision margins. Current WHO Classifications of Malignant Tumours and TNM8 are referenced. Notes are provided on other associated pathology, contemporary use of immunohistochemistry, updates on the role of evolving molecular tests, and the use of these ancillary techniques as biomarkers in diagnosis, and prediction of prognosis and treatment response. A summary is given of the more common non-carcinoma malignancies that are encountered at this site in diagnostic practice.
KeywordsSeminoma Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours Embryonal carcinoma Teratoma Yolk-sac tumour TNM8 Immunohistochemistry
- Amin MB, Edge SB, Greene FL, et al., editors. AJCC cancer staging manual. 8th ed. New York: Springer; 2017.Google Scholar
- Berney DM, Idrees MT, Tickoo SK, et al. Neoplasia of the testis, orchidectomy, histopathology reporting guide. 1st ed. Sydney: International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting; 2017. http://www.iccr-cancer.org/getattachment/Datasets/Published-Datasets/Urinary-Male-Genital/Neoplasia-of-the-Testis-Orchidectomy-TNM8/Testis-Orchidectomy-hyperlinked-1st-edition Google Scholar
- Cancer Research UK. Penile cancer statistics. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/penile-cancer.
- Idrees MT, Ulbright TM, Oliva E, Members of the international society of urological pathology testicular tumour panel, et al. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular non-germ cell tumours: a review and update from the international society of urological pathology testis consultation panel. Histopathology. 2017;70:513–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Penis; Urethra. In: Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, editors. TNM classification of malignant tumours. 8th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2017.Google Scholar
- Reisch N, Rottenkolber M, Greifenstein A, et al. Testicular adrenal rest tumors develop independently of long-term disease control: a longitudinal analysis of 50 adult men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E1820–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sanfrancesco JM, Trevino KE, Xu H, Ulbright TM, Idrees MT. The significance of spermatic cord involvement by testicular germ cell tumors: should we be staging discontinuous invasion from involved lymphovascular spaces differently from direct extension? Am J Surg Pathol. 2018;42:306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schmoll HJ, Jordan K, Huddart R, et al. Testicular non-seminoma: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:v147–54.Google Scholar
- Testis. In: Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, editors. TNM classification of malignant tumours. 8th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2017.Google Scholar
- The Royal College of Pathologists. Datasets and tissue pathways: urinary tract and testes. https://www.rcpath.org/profession/publications/cancer-datasets.html.
- Tickoo SK, Zhou M, Allan R, Amin MB, Chang SS, Humphrey PA, McKiernan J, Pettus J, Reuter VE, Srigley JR, Ulbright TM, With guidance from the CAP Cancer and CAP Pathology Electronic Reporting Committees. College of American Pathologists protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with malignant germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis, Version: Testis 18.104.22.168, Protocol posting date June 2017. http://www.cap.org/ShowProperty?nodePath=/UCMCon/Contribution%20Folders/WebContent/pdf/cp-testis-17protocol-4010.pdf.
- Ulbright TM, Tickoo SK, Berney DM, Srigley JR, Members of the ISUP Immunohistochemistry in Diagnostic Urologic Pathology Group. Best practices recommendations in the application of immunohistochemistry in testicular tumors: report from the international society of urological pathology consensus conference. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:e50–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Verrill C, Yilmaz A, Srigley JR, Members of the International Society of Urological Pathology Testicular Tumor Panel, et al. Reporting and staging of testicular germ cell tumors: the international society of urological pathology (ISUP) testicular cancer consultation conference recommendations. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:e22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Williamson SR, Delahunt B, Magi-Galluzzi C, Algaba F, Egevad L, Ulbright TM, Tickoo SK, Srigley JR, Epstein JI, Berney DM, Members of the ISUP Testicular Tumour Panel. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular germ cell tumours: a review and update from the international society of urological pathology testis consultation panel. Histopathology. 2017;70:335–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar