Bladder Carcinoma: this chapter outlines the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, investigations, treatments and prognosis of cancer at this anatomical site. These features are correlated with the core data that are required to make corresponding histopathology reports of a consistently high quality, available in an appropriate timeframe, and clinically relevant to patient management and prognosis. Summary details of the common cancers given at this site include: gross description, histological types, tumour grade/differentiation, extent of local tumour spread, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and the status of excision margins. Current WHO Classifications of Malignant Tumours and TNM8 are referenced. Notes are provided on other associated pathology, contemporary use of immunohistochemistry, updates on the role of evolving molecular tests, and the use of these ancillary techniques as biomarkers in diagnosis, and prediction of prognosis and treatment response. A summary is given of the more common non-carcinoma malignancies that are encountered at this site in diagnostic practice.
KeywordsUrothelial carcinoma TNM8 Carcinoma in situ WHO grading Immunohistochemistry
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