• Ali H. A. Al-Waeli
  • Hussein A. Kazem
  • Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
  • Kamaruzzaman Sopian


Concepts of solar energy technologies like photovoltaic (PV) modules and solar thermal collectors are critical to understand hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) collectors. This chapter introduces the field of solar energy by first addressing their market success and potential. Further illustration on solar energy theory is conducted to explain extraterrestrial radiation; different types of solar irradiance, zenith, azimuth, and hour angles; solar and local standard time; equation of time; etc. The measurement of solar irradiance using pyranometers and pyrheliometers is explained as well. The chronology of photovoltaic efficiency development, pivotal moments in solar photovoltaic, and pivotal moments in solar thermal was discussed as well. The concepts of photovoltaic (PV) systems were explained in detail such as PV cell material, composition, components, equivalent electric circuit, IV and power curves, fill factors, and efficiency. Comprehensive literature review of recent studies in PV to showcase broad range of topics such as optimum tilt angle and MPPT tracking, sizing techniques, cost-effectiveness, effects of environmental conditions, hybrid PV systems and PV applications. Solar thermal systems were also explained in terms of concept, classifications, and flat-plate collectors (FPC) type. The components of flat-plate collectors (FPC), energy balance, and thermal and optical efficiencies were discussed, followed by literature review on design and modeling of FPC as well as advanced concepts and designs of FPC.


Photovoltaic (PV) Flat-plate collectors (FPC) Electrical power Power conversion efficiency Thermal power 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali H. A. Al-Waeli
    • 1
  • Hussein A. Kazem
    • 2
  • Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
    • 3
  • Kamaruzzaman Sopian
    • 1
  1. 1.Solar Energy Research InstituteUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringSohar UniversitySoharOman
  3. 3.Energy and Renewable Energies Technology CenterUniversity of TechnologyBaghdadIraq

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