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18F-FDG

  • Ferdinando CalabriaEmail author
  • Andrea Cimini
  • Antonio Bagnato
  • Domenico Gullà
  • Giuseppe L. Cascini
  • Nicoletta Urbano
  • Orazio Schillaci
Chapter

Abstract

18F-FDG PET/CT is a widely used diagnostic tool in the management of oncologic diseases. Being an analog of glucose, the 18F-FDG uptake in cancer cells allows to detect growth and vitality during the time and distant metastases, in malignant tumors with high gradient of glucose metabolism. In these oncologic diseases, 18F-FDG is also currently useful as marker of response to therapy.

Moreover, the use of this tracer is not limited to oncology but is involved in the evaluation of brain metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases, also with hybrid, simultaneous, PET/MR imaging, and in the detection of myocardial viability by means of PET imaging.

The 18F-FDG follows, in vivo, the same biological pathway of glucose; after administration, it is taken up in cells with high glycolysis. Site of high rate of physiological uptake are the brain, myocardium, liver, spleen, and, due to renal excretion, kidneys, ureters, and bladder. During the time, several false positive cases have been described, due to the possibility of 18F-FDG uptake in inflammation, infections, and benign tumors. False negative cases can be due to malignant lesions with low rate of glucose metabolism.

Keywords

18F-FDG PET/CT PET/MRI Neurology Oncology Hematology 

Abbreviations

18F-FDG

18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose

BOLD

Blood oxygenation level dependent

FLAIR

Fluid attenuation inversion recovery

MIP

Maximum intensity projection

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PET/CT

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography

ROI

Region of interest

SPECT/CT

Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

SUVmax

Maximum standardized uptake value

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferdinando Calabria
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrea Cimini
    • 2
  • Antonio Bagnato
    • 1
  • Domenico Gullà
    • 3
  • Giuseppe L. Cascini
    • 4
  • Nicoletta Urbano
    • 5
  • Orazio Schillaci
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Theranostics“Mariano Santo” HospitalCosenzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and RadiotherapyUniversity Hospital Tor VergataRomeItaly
  3. 3.Neuroimaging PET/MRI Research UnitInstitute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, Italian National Research Council, IBFM-CNRCatanzaroItaly
  4. 4.Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Diagnostic ImagingMagna Graecia UniversityCatanzaroItaly
  5. 5.Nuclear Medicine UnitUniversity Hospital “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  6. 6.Department of Biomedicine and PreventionUniversity “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  7. 7.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingIRCCS NeuromedPozzilliItaly

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