Advertisement

Initiation of Ripening

  • Anthony Keith Thompson
  • Suriyan Supapvanich
  • Jiraporn Sirison
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition book series (BRIEFSFOOD)

Abstract

Bananas are climacteric fruit which means that they go through a period of development, which is climaxed by endogenous biosynthesis of ethylene that initiates the ripening process. Bananas are harvested at the pre-climacteric period to facilitate marketing. Fruit are then loaded into ripening rooms and initiated to ripen. Exogenous application of ethylene is commonly used and various methods any systems for its application have been developed. Other methods can be used when ethylene is not appropriate or not readily available. These include some chemical treatments as well as other methods including smoking and damage. All these methods are evaluated and discussed in terms of their effectiveness, economics and safety.

References

  1. Abeles, A. L., & Abeles, F. B. (1972). Biochemical pathway of stress-induced ethylene. Plant Physiology, 50, 496–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acedo, A. L., & Bautista, O. K. (1993). Optimization of indigenous ripening systems for bananas in the Philippines. ACIAR Proceedings, 50, 172–185.Google Scholar
  3. Amarakoon, R., Sarananda, K. H., & Illeperuma, D. C. K. (1999). Quality of mangoes as affected by stage of maturity. Tropical Agricultural Research, 11, 74–85.Google Scholar
  4. Bautista, O. K. (1990). Postharvest technology for southeast Asian perishable crops. Technology and Livelihood Resource Center 302 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Beckles, D. M. (2012). Factors affecting the postharvest soluble solids and sugar content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 63, 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burg, S. P. (2004). Postharvest physiology and hypobaric storage of fresh produce. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  7. Burg, S. P., & Burg, E. A. (1967). Molecular requirements for the biological activity of ethylene. Plant Physiology, 42, 144–152.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chandel, R., Sharma, P. C., & Gupta, A. (2018). Method for detection and removal of arsenic residues in calcium carbide ripened mangoes. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42, e13420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chow, M. (1979). The preoccupation with food safety. In M. Chow & T. D. P. Harmon Jr. (Eds.), Critical food issues for the eighties (pp. 14–42). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  10. Curry, E. A. (1998). Ethylene in fruit ripening. 14th Annual Postharvest Conference, Yakima.Google Scholar
  11. da Costa Nascimento, R., de Oliveira Freire, O., Ribeiro, L. S., Araújo, M. B., Finger, F. L., Soares, M. A., Wilcken, C. F., Zanuncio, J. C., & Ribeiro, W. S. (2019). Ripening of bananas using Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth leaves. Scientific Reports 9, 1–6. Article number: 3548.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40053-3
  12. Denny, F. E. (1923). Methods of colouring citrus fruits. US Patent no.1, 475,938.Google Scholar
  13. Dhembare, A. J. (2013). Bitter truth about fruit with reference to artificial ripener. Archives of Applied Science Research, 5, 45–54.Google Scholar
  14. Ferris, R. S. B., Wainwright, H., & Thompson, A. K. (1993). Effect of maturity, damage and humidity on ripening of plantain and cooking banana. ACIAR Proceedings, 50, 434–437.Google Scholar
  15. Gandhi, S., Sharma, M., & Bhatnagar, B. (2016). Comparative study on the ripening ability of banana by artificial ripening agent (calcium carbide) and natural ripening agents. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3, 127.Google Scholar
  16. Gane, R. (1934). Production of ethylene by some ripening fruits. Nature, 134, 1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gane, R. (1936). A study of the respiration of bananas. New Phytologist, 35, 383–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gautam, D. M., & Dhakal, D. D. (1993). Falful tatha audhogik bali. Bharatpur: Pavitra and Rupa Publication.Google Scholar
  19. Golding, J. B., Shearer, D., Wyllie, S. G., & McGlasson, W. B. (1998). Application of 1-MCP and propylene to identify ethylene-dependent ripening processes in mature banana fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 14, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goonatilake, R. (2008). Effects of diluted ethylene glycol as a fruit-ripening agent. Global Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry, 3, 08–13.Google Scholar
  21. Gunasekara, S. R. W., Hemamali, K. K. G. U., Dayananada, T. G., & Jayamanne, V. S. (2015). Postharvest quality analysis of ‘Embul’ banana following artificial ripening techniques. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 4, 1625–1632.Google Scholar
  22. Harvey R. B. (1928). Artificial ripening of fruits and vegetables. https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/.../mn_1000_b_247.pdf?...1
  23. Ho, B. T., Joyce, D. C., & Bhandari, B. R. (2011). Release kinetics of ethylene gas from ethylene-alpha-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. Food Chemistry, 129(2), 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ho, B. T., Yuwono, T. D., Joyce, D. C., & Bhandari, B. R. (2015). Controlled release of ethylene gas from the ethylene-alpha-cyclodextrin inclusion complex powder with deliquescent salts. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, 83(3–4), 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ho, B. T., Hofman, P. J., Joyce, D. C., & Bhandari, B. R. (2016). Uses of an innovative ethylene-α-cyclodextrin inclusion complex powder for ripening of mango fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 113 77–86. Corrigendum to “Uses of an innovative ethylene-α-cyclodextrin inclusion complex powder for ripening of mango fruit”. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 117, 239–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hulme, A. C. (1971). The biochemistry of fruits and their products (Vol. 3). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  27. Islam, M. N., Rahman, A. H. M. S., Mursalat, M., Rony, A. H., & Khan, M. S. (2016). A legislative aspect of artificial fruit ripening in a developing country like Bangladesh. Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin, 18, 30–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kader, A. A. (1983). Physiological and biochmical effects of carbon monoxide added to controlled atmospheres of fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 138, 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kader, A. A. (1987). Respiration and gas exchange in vegetables. In J. Weichmann (Ed.), Postharvest physiology of vegetables (pp. 25–44). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Kamdee, C., Ketsa, S., & van Doorn, W. G. (2018). Effect of heat treatment on ripening and early peel spotting in Sucrier banana. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 52, 288–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karikari, S. K., Marriot, J., & Hutchins, P. (1979). Changes during the respiratory climacteric in ripening plantain fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 10, 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khan, M. Y., Khan, F. A., & Beg, M. S. (2013). Ethanol kerosene blends: Fuel option for kerosene wick stove. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(1), 464–466.Google Scholar
  33. Kirk-Othmer. (2004). Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (Vol. 4, 5th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Kitinoja, L., & Kader, A. A. (2002). Small-scale postharvest handling practices: A manual for horticultural crops (4th Ed.). University of California, Davis Postharvest Technology Research and Information Center.Google Scholar
  35. Lakade, A. J., Sundar, K., & Halady, P. (2018). Shetty Gold nanoparticle-based method for detection of calcium carbide in artificially ripened mangoes (Magnifera indica). Food Additives & Contaminants, 35, 1078–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maia, V. M., Salomão, L. C. C., Siqueira, D. L., Aspiazúl, I., & Maia, L. C. B. (2014). Physical and metabolic changes induced by mechanical damage in ‘Dwarf-Prata’ banana fruits kept under cold storage. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 8, 1029–1037.Google Scholar
  37. Marcus, Y. (1990). Recommended methods for the purification of solvents and tests for impurities: 1, 2ethanediol and 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethanol. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 62, 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McMurchie, E. J., McGlasson, W. B., & Eaks, I. L. (1972). Treatment of fruit with propylene gives information about the biogenesis of ethylene. Nature, 237, 235–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Medlicott, A. P., Sigrist, J. M. M., Reynolds, S. B., & Thompson, A. K. (1987). Effects of ethylene and acetylene on mango fruit ripening. Annals of Applied Biology, 111, 439–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mitchell, F. G. (1990). Postharvest physiology and technology of kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae, 282, 291–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morris, L., Yang, S. F., & Mansfield, D. (1981). Postharvest physiology studies. Californian fresh market tomato advisory board annual report 1980–1981, 85–105.Google Scholar
  42. Morton, J. F. (1987). Fruits of warm climates. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/papaya_ars.html. Accessed 29 March 2019.
  43. Narasimham, P., Dalal, V. B., Nagaraja, N., Krishnaprakash, M. S., & Amla, B. L. (1971). Effects of smoking on some physiological changes in bananas. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8, 84–85.Google Scholar
  44. Neljubow, D. (1901). Ueber die horizontale nutation der stengel von Pisum sativum und einiger Anderer. Pflanzen Beih Bot Zentralbl, 10, 128–139.Google Scholar
  45. Nura, A., Dandag, M. A., & Wali, N. R. (2018). Effects of artificial ripening of banana (Musa spp) using calcium carbide on acceptability and nutritional quality. Journal of Postharvest Technology, 6, 14–20.Google Scholar
  46. Paull, R. E., & Chen, N. J. (2000). Heat treatment and fruit ripening. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 21, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Peacock, B. C. (1972). Role of ethylene in the initiation of fruit ripening. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science, 29, 137–145.Google Scholar
  48. Pokhrel, P. (2013). Use of higher ethylene generating fruits for ripening as an alternative to ethylene. Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal, 8, 84–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ram, H. B., Singh, S. K., Singh, R. V., & Surjeet, S. (1979). Effect of Ethrel and smoking treatment on ripening and storage of banana cultivar Himachal. Progressive Horticulture, 11, 69–75.Google Scholar
  50. Ram, B. K. C., Gautam, D. M., & Tiwari, S. (2009). Use of Ethephone and indigenous plant materials in ripening banana in winter. Nepal Agricultural Research Journal, 9, 113.Google Scholar
  51. Reid, M. S. (2002). Ethylene in postharvest technology In: Kader, A.A. (ed). Postharvest technology of horticultural crops. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3311. pp.149–162..Google Scholar
  52. Saltveit, M. E. (1999). Effect of ethylene on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 15, 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sarananda, K. H. (1990). Effect of calcium carbide on ripening of ‘Embul’ bananas. Tropical Agriculturist, 146, 27–35.Google Scholar
  54. Scriven, F. M., Gek, C. O., & Wills, R. B. H. (1989). Sensory differences between bananas ripened with and without ethylene. HortScience, 24, 983–984.Google Scholar
  55. Segall, Y., Grendell, R. L., Toia, R. F., & Casida, J. E. (1991). Composition of technical ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] and some analogues relative to their reactivity and biological activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39, 380–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sfakiotakis, E., Antunes, M. D., Stavroulakis, G., & Niklis, N. (1999). Rapporti fra produzione di etilene e maturazione dei frutti della cultivar Hayward nelle fasi di raccolta e conservazione. Rivista di Frutticoltura e di Ortofloricoltura, 61, 59–65.Google Scholar
  57. Shaoying, Z., Zhu, L., & Dong, X. (2015). Combined treatment of carbon monoxide and chitosan reduced peach fruit browning and softening during cold storage. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 4, 477–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Siddiqui, M. W., & Dhua, R. S. (2010). Eating artificial ripened fruits is harmful. Current Science, 99, 1664–1668.Google Scholar
  59. Smith, N. J. S., & Thompson, A. K. (1987). The effects of temperature, concentration and exposure time to acetylene on initiation of banana ripening. Journal of the Science of Food Agriculture, 40, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith, N. J. S., Seymour, G. B., & Thompson, A. K. (1986). Effects of high temperatures on ripening responses of bananas to acetylene. Annals of Applied Biology, 108, 667–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sogo-Temi, C. M., Idowu, O. A., & Idowu, E. (2014). Effect of biological and chemical ripening agents on the nutritional and metal composition of banana (Musa spp.). Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 18, 243–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sonmezdag, A. S., Kelebek, H., & Selli, S. (2014). Comparison of the aroma and some physicochemical properties of Grand Naine (Musa acuminata) banana as influenced by natural and ethylene-treated ripening. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 38, 2137–2145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stahler M. R. (1962). Process for ripening bananas and citrus fruit. U.S. Patent.Google Scholar
  64. Stavroulakis, G., & Sfakiotakis, E. (1997). Regulation of propylene-induced ripening and ethylene biosynthesis by oxygen in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 10, 189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Story, A., & Simons, D. H. (Eds.). (1999). Fresh produce manual (3rd ed.). Australian United Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Association Ltd.Google Scholar
  66. Thompson, A. K. (1985). Postharvest losses of bananas, onions and potatoes in PDR Yemen. Tropical Development and Research Institute, London United Kingdom Contract Services Report CO 485.Google Scholar
  67. Thompson, A. K. (1996). Postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables. London: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  68. Thompson, A. K., & Seymour, G. B. (1982). Comparative effects of acetylene and ethylene gas on initiation of banana ripening. Annals of Applied Biology, 101, 407–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thompson, A. K., Been, B. O., & Perkins, C. (1974). Effects of humidity on ripening of plantain bananas. Experientia, 30, 35–36.Google Scholar
  70. Tadesse, T. N. (2014). Quality attributes and ripening period of banana (Musa spp.) fruit as affected by plant ethylene sources and packaging materials. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 9, 304–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. University of Queensland. (2017). file:///C:/Users/Anthony%20Keith%20Thomps/Downloads/UniQuest%20Tech%20Brief%20-%20Ripestuff%20Q3%202014.pdf. Accessed 24 March 2019.Google Scholar
  72. Venkata Subbaiah, K., Jagadeesh, S. L., Thammaiah, N., & Chavan, M. L. (2013). Changes in physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of banana fruit cv. Grand Naine during ripening. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26, 111–114.Google Scholar
  73. Wang, C. Y., & Mellenthin, W. M. (1972). Internal ethylene levels during ripening and climacteric in Anjou pears. Plant Physiology, 50, 311–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wills, R. B. H., Harris, D. R., Spohr, L. J., & Golding, J. B. (2014). Reduction of energy usage during storage and transport of bananas by management of exogenous ethylene levels. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 89, 7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wills, R. B. H., McGlasson, B., Graham, D., & Joyce, D. (1998). Postharvest: An introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals (4th ed.). Wallingford: CAB. International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony Keith Thompson
    • 1
  • Suriyan Supapvanich
    • 1
  • Jiraporn Sirison
    • 1
  1. 1.King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology LadkrabangBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations