Trade Relations

  • Niels Eichhorn


Since its opening, the Atlantic world had economically connected its adjacent continents, bringing unknown foods and goods to the various parts of this trade network. Trade created new economic opportunities, industry, and eventually prosperous port cities. With the independence of the Americas and these markets leaving the restrictive colonial trade system, a vast array of merchants desired to benefit.


  1. Beutin, Ludwig. Bremen und Amerika: Zur Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft und der Beziehungen Deutschlands zu den Vereinigten Staaten. Bremen, Germany: C. Schünemann, 1953.Google Scholar
  2. Butler, Daniel A. The Age of Cunard: A Transatlantic History 1839–2003. Annapolis, MD: Lighthouse Press Publication, 2004.Google Scholar
  3. Despatches from U.S. Ministers to Brazil, National Archives. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Fraser-Macdonald, A. Our Ocean Railways. London, UK: Chapman and Hall, 1893.Google Scholar
  5. Hyde, Francis E. Cunard and the North Atlantic, 1840–1973: A History of Shipping and Financial Management. London, UK: Macmillan, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lindeman, Moritz. Der Norddeutsche Lloyd: Geschichte und Handbuch. Bremen, Germany: Schünemann, 1892.Google Scholar
  7. Robins, Nick S. The Coming of the Comet: The Rise and Fall of the Paddle Steamer. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing, 2012.Google Scholar
  8. Schleiden Papers. Landesbibliothek Schleswig-Holstein. Kiel, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. Schleiden Papers. Staatsarchiv. Bremen, Germany.Google Scholar
  10. Schleiden, Rudolph M. Schleswig-Holsteins erste Erhebung, 1848–1849. Wiesbaden, Germany: Verlag von J. F. Bergmann, 1891.Google Scholar
  11. Smith, Crosbie, and Anne Scott. “‘Trust in Providence’: Building Confidence into the Cunard Line of Steamers.” Technology and Culture 48 (July 2007): 471–496.Google Scholar
  12. Stiles, T. J. The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt. New York: Vintage Books, 2010.Google Scholar
  13. United Kingdom. Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom in Each Year from 1840 to 1853. London, UK: George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode, 1854.Google Scholar
  14. United States. Report of the Secretary of the Treasury … Commerce and Navigation, 1859–1860. Washington, DC: George W. Bowman, 1860.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels Eichhorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Middle Georgia State UniversityMaconUSA

Personalised recommendations