Clinical and Diagnostic Evaluation of GERD

  • Francisco Schlottmann
  • Martín Galvarini
  • Marco G. Patti


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects approximately 20% of the population in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Typical symptoms include heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia. However, patients often present with atypical symptoms such as chronic cough, laryngitis, or even asthma. Therefore, the evaluation of patients with suspected GERD should include not only a thorough clinical examination but also multiple diagnostic tests in order to detect anatomical abnormalities, obtain objective evidence of pathologic gastroesophageal reflux, and rule out other diseases that might account for the patients’ symptoms.


Heartburn Regurgitation Dysphagia Endoscopy Manometry pH monitoring 


Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Schlottmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Martín Galvarini
    • 1
  • Marco G. Patti
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryHospital Alemán of Buenos Aires, University of Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineCenter for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryCenter for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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