Intersex in Europe

  • Nikoletta Pikramenou


Over the last two decades, the European Union (EU) has been introducing legislation for the active promotion of SOGI rights. Some of the rights of sexual minorities in the EU are protected under the European Union’s treaties and law. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and the Charter on Fundamental Rights condemn discrimination based on sexual orientation. In the field of employment, the Council Directive 2000/78/EC called Employment Equality Framework Directive combats discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation. The adoption of the Employment Directive obliges all Member States to introduce legislation banning discrimination in employment on sexual orientation. Gender identity may not be incorporated in EU law but the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has provided some protection by interpreting discrimination on the basis of “sex”. Despite all the progress in SOGI rights, intersex have not yet received the same attention as the rest of sexual minorities in the EU.



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikoletta Pikramenou
    • 1
  1. 1.AthensGreece

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