Advertisement

Kixiri and the Origin of Day and Night: Ethnoprimatology among the Waimiri Atroari Ameindians of the Central Amazonia, Brazil

  • Rosélis R. de Souza-MazurekEmail author
  • Ana Carla Bruno
Chapter
  • 9 Downloads
Part of the Ethnobiology book series (EBL)

Abstract

Primate species are an integral part of the lives of many indigenous groups living in Amazonian lowlands. Primates are not only important as food, but they are also present in Amerindian cultural symbolic traits. In this chapter, we describe the cultural uses of primate species as food, including preferences, avoidances, and taboos as well as the role of monkeys in myths and folklore among the Waimiri Atroari Amerindians of the Central Amazonia, Brazil. Three cebid species represented 24.5% of the total vertebrates, and 35% of all individual mammals hunted in a 1-year study. Alouatta macconnelli ranked first followed by Ateles paniscus and Sapajus apella. Alouatta macconnelli and Ateles paniscus are the largest of the 10 monkey species reported for the area. The same species are also subject to temporal use restrictions during postpartum and figure in the songs during Bahinja Maryba male initiation ritual. Primates participate in important myths with multiple symbolic significances for the social and cultural order of the Waimiri Atroari. Saguinus midas was a Kinja (people) in mythical times, but it was transformed into monkey with golden hands as a punishment by a superior being for breaking the sun giving origin to the observed natural astronomical phenomena of day and night.

Keywords

Waimiri Atroari Amerindians Ethnoprimatology Brazilian Amazon Mythology Hunted animals 

Resumen

Las especies de primates son parte integral de las vidas de muchos grupos indígenas en las tierras amazónicas. Los primates son importantes no solamente como alimento sino que están presentes en los rasgos simbólico-culturales amerindios. En este capítulo se describe la utilización cultural de los primates como alimento, incluidas preferencias y situaciones en las que se evita esta práctica, además de los tabúes sobre el rol de los monos en los mitos y el folclor de los indígenas Waimiri Atroari de la Amazonía Central del Brasil. Tres especies de cébidos representaron un 24.5% del total de vertebrados y un 35% de los mamíferos individuales cazados durante un estudio con duración de un año. Alouatta macconnelli ha sido el preferido, seguido por Ateles paniscus y Sapajus apella. Las especies Alouatta macconnelli y Ateles paniscus son las más grandes entre las diez especies de monos encontradas en el área. Estas especies también están sujetas a restricciones temporales de utilización después del parto, además de aparecer en canciones durante el ritual de iniciación masculina conocido como Bahinja Maryba. Los primates están presentes en importantes mitos con múltiples significados simbólicos para el orden social y cultural de los Waimiri Atroari. Saguinus midas ha sido un Kinja (gente) en tiempos míticos, pero ha sido transformado en un mono con manos doradas por un ser superior como castigo por romper el sol, dando origen a los fenómenos astronómicos naturales del día y la noche.

Palabras Clave

Amerindios Waimiri Atroari ethnoprimatología Amazonas brasileño Mitologia aminales de caceria 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Waimiri Atroari people for their support during Souza-Mazurek’s field studies and data collection on subsistence hunting. The Waimiri Atroari Program provided logistical support in the indigenous area. Souza-Mazurek was supported by a PCI grant from the Brazilian National Research Council – CNPq. We thank Robert P. Miller and Louis Forline for their comments and for the English revision.

References

  1. Bandeira A (2009) Jauapery. Edua, ManausGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbosa Rodrigues J (1885) Pacificação do Crichanás. Imprensa Nacional, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  3. Behrens CA (1986) Shipibo food categorization and preference: relationships between indigenous and Western dietary concepts. Am Anthropol 88:647–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruno AC (2003) Waimiri-Atroari grammar: some phonological, morphological, and syntactic aspects. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruno AC (2010) “How can I write my language?” Linguistic analysis and language revitalization: lessons from Waimiri Atroari syllable structure. Liames 10:85–99Google Scholar
  6. Bruno AC (2014) (org) Vozes da Floresta: a arte de contar histórias – Histórias do Passado e do Cotidiano Indígena. Editora INPA, ManausGoogle Scholar
  7. Carosi M, Linn GS, Visalberghi E (2005) The sexual behavior and breeding system of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Adv Study Behav 35:105–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cormier LA (2003) Kinship with monkeys: the Guajá Foragers of Eastern Amazonia. Columbia University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cormier LA (2006) A preliminary review of Neotropical primates in subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland South American peoples. Ecol Environ Anthropol 2:14–32Google Scholar
  10. Da Silva MNF, Shepard GH Jr, Yu DW (2005) Conservation implications of primates hunting practices among the Matsigenka of Manu National Park. Neotrop Primates 13(2):31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Do Vale MCR (2002). Waimiri-Atroari em festa é Maryba na floresta. Master thesis, Universidade do Amazonas, AmazonasGoogle Scholar
  12. Crockett CM, Eisenberg JF (1987) Howlers: variations in group size and demography. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Strushsaker TT (eds) Primate societies. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 54–68Google Scholar
  13. Endo W, Peres C, Salas E, Mori S, Sanchez-Vega JL, Shepard G et al (2009) Game vertebrate densities in hunted and non hunted forest sites in Manu National Park, Peru. Biotropica 42(2):251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Espinola CV (1995) O Sistema Médico Waimiri-Atroari: Concepções e Práticas, Master Thesis. PPGAS-UFSC, FlorianópolisGoogle Scholar
  15. Emídio-Silva C (1998) A caça de subsistência praticada pelos índios Parakanã (sudeste do Pará): características e sustentabilidade. Master Dissertation. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi & Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, BelémGoogle Scholar
  16. Fragaszy D, Visalberghi E, Fedigan L (2004) The complete capuchin: the biology of the genus Cebus. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Jerozolimski A, Peres C (2003) Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forests. Biol Conserv 111(3):415–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hames RB (1979) A comparison of the efficiencies of the shotgun and the bow in neotropical forest hunting. Hum Ecol 7:219–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hanson-Alp R, Bakarr MI, Lebbie A, Bangura KI (2003) Sierra Leone. In: Kormos R, Boesch C, Bakarr M, Butynski T (eds) West African chimpanzees: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, pp 77–87Google Scholar
  20. Henfrey TB (2002) Ethnoecology, resource use, conservation, and development in a Wapishana Community in South Rupununi, Guyana. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Kent, CanterburyGoogle Scholar
  21. Izawa K (1980) Social behavior of the wild black capped capuchin Cebus apella. Primates 21(4):443–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lévi-Strauss C, Eribom D (1988) De perto e de longe: entrevista com Claude Lévi-Strauss. Nova Fronteira, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  23. Linke IHV (2009) Caracterização do uso da fauna cinegética em aldeias das etnias Wayana e Aparai na terra indígena Parque do Tumucumaque, Pará. Master Thesis. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, BelémGoogle Scholar
  24. Lizarralde M (2002) Ethnoecology of monkeys among the Barí of Venezuela: perception, use, and conservation. In: Fuentes A, Wolfe LD (eds) Primates face to face: the conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matarezio-Filho ET (2010) Ritual e Pessoa entre os Waimiri Atroari. Master Thesis. University of São Paulo, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  26. Mena VP, Stallings JR, Regalado JB, Cueva RL (2000) The sustainability of current hunting practices by the Huaorani. In: Robinson J, Bennett E (eds) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 57–78Google Scholar
  27. Miliken W, Miller RP, Pollard S, Wandeli EV (1992) Ethnobotany of the Waimiri Atroari Amerindians. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  28. Milton K (1981) Estimate of reproductive parameters for free ranging Ateles geoffroyi. Primates 22:574–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Milton K (1991) Comparative aspects of diet in Amazonian forest-dwellers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 334:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miller RP, Wandelli EV, Grenand P (1989) Conhecimento e utilização da floresta pelos índios Waimiri Atroari do Rio Camanaú, Amazonas (I). Acta Bot Bras 3(2) Supl 47–56 Google Scholar
  31. Mittermeier RA (1987) Effects of hunting on rain forest Primates. In: Marsh CW, Mittermeier RA (eds) Primate conservation in the tropical rain forest. Alan Liss Inc, New York, pp 109–146Google Scholar
  32. Mittermeier RA (1991) Hunting and its effect on wild primates populations in Suriname. In: Robinson JG, Redford KH (eds) Neotropical wildlife use and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 93–107Google Scholar
  33. Monte PP (1992) Etno-história Waimiri Atroari (1883–1962). Master Dissertation, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  34. Ouhoud-Renoux F (1998) Se nourrir à trois sauts analyse diachronique de la prédation chez les wayâpi du haut-oyapock (guyane française). JATBA, Revue d'ethnobiologie 40(1–2):181–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peres C (1990) Effects of hunting on western Amazonian primate communities. Biol Conserv 54:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peres C (1991) Humbolt’s woolly monkeys decimated by hunting in Amazonia. Oryx 25:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peres C (2000) Evaluating the impact and sustainability of sustainable hunting at multiple Amazonian forest sites. In: Robinson JG, Bennett EL (eds) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 31–56Google Scholar
  38. Prado HM, Forline LC, Kipnis R (2012) Hunting practices among the Awá-Guajá: towards a long-term analysis of sustainability in an Amazonian indigenous community. Bol Mus Para Emílio Goeldi Cienc Hum 7(2):479–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Queiroz HL (1995) Preguiças e guaribas: os mamíferos folívoros arborícolas do Mamirauá. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá/MCT/CNPq, Distrito Federal, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
  40. Queiroz HL, Kipnis K (1990) Os índios Awá-Guajá e os primatas da Amazônia maranhense: um caso de sustentabilidade de caça. In: Ferrari SF, Schneider H (eds) A Primatologia no Brasil. Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, pp 81–94Google Scholar
  41. Rudran R, Fernandez-Duque E (2003) Demographic changes over thirty years in a red howler population in Venezuela. Int J Primat 24:925–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shepard GHJ (2002) Primates in Matsigenka subsistence and worldview. In: Fuentes A, Wolfe LD (eds) Primates face to face: the conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 101–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Silva MF (1993) Romance de primos e primas: uma etnografia do parentesco Waimiri Atroari. Ph.D Thesis Social Anthropology. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/Museu Nacional, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  44. Souza-Mazurek RR, Pedrinho T, Feliciano X, Hilario W, Geroncio S, Marcelo E (2000) Subsistence hunting among the Waimiri Atroari Amerindians in Central Amazonia. Brazil Biodivers Conserv 5(5):579–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Souza-Mazurek RR (2001) Kinja Txi Taka Nukwa Myrykwase: fishing and hunting among the Waimiri Atroari Amerindians from Central Amazonia. PhD Dissertation. University of Illinois at Chicago, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  46. Symington MM (1987) Sex ratio and maternal rank in wild spider monkeys: when daughters disperse. Behav Ecol and Sociobiol 20:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thorington-Jr RW, Rundran R, Mack D (1979) Sexual dimorphism in Alouatta macconnelli and observations in capture techniques. In: Eisenberg JF (ed) Vertebrate ecology in the northern Neotropics. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp 97–106Google Scholar
  48. Trolle M (2003) Mammal survey in the Jauaperi river region, rio Negro Basin, the Amazon, Brazil. Mamalia, t. 67. no 1, 75–83Google Scholar
  49. Urbani BL (2005) The targeted monkey: a re-evaluation of predation on New World primates. J Anthropol Sci 83:89–109Google Scholar
  50. Urbani BL, Cormier LA (2015) The ethnoprimatology of the howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.): from past to present. In: Kowalewski MM et al (eds) Howler monkeys, developments in primatology: progress and prospects. Springer Science + Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. van Roosmalen MGM (1985) Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam. Acta Amaz 15:1–238Google Scholar
  52. Vickers W (1991) Hunting yields and game composition over ten years in an Amazonian Indian territory. In: Robinson JG, Redford KH (eds) Neotropical wildlife use and conservation. University of Chicago, Chicago, pp 53–81Google Scholar
  53. Viveiros de Castro E (2002a) Imagens da Natureza e da Sociedade. In: Viveiros de Castro E (ed) A Inconstância da alma selvagem e outros ensaios de Antropologia. Cosac&Naify, São Paulo, pp 310–344Google Scholar
  54. Viveiros de Castro E (2002b) Perspectivismo e Multinaturalismo na América Indígena. In: Viveiros de Castro E (ed) A Inconstância da alma selvagem e outros ensaios de Antropologia. Cosac&Naify, São Paulo, pp 225–254Google Scholar
  55. Wagley C (1983) Welcome of tears, the Tapirapé Indians of Central Brazil. Prospect. Waveland Press, HeightsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosélis R. de Souza-Mazurek
    • 1
    • 3
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ana Carla Bruno
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaManausBrazil
  2. 2.Local Heritage, Environment and Globalization Laboratory – IRD MNHNParisFrance
  3. 3.Takahi SocioambientalSão PauloFrance
  4. 4.NPA-Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaManausBrazil
  5. 5.Coordenação de Sociedade, Ambiente e Saúde – COSASManausBrazil

Personalised recommendations