Outcomes of Metabolic Surgery

  • Rene Aleman
  • Francesco Rubino
  • Emanuele Lo Menzo
  • Raul J. Rosenthal


The concept of “metabolic surgery” has evolved to indicate a surgical approach aimed at controlling metabolic illnesses and not just excess weight. Demographic characteristics, prevalence, and severity of diabetes and cardiovascular disease differ substantially in patients who present for metabolic surgery compared to those who seek conventional bariatric surgery for weight loss. Such differences have important ramifications for preoperative and postoperative patient management as well as outcomes of metabolic surgery. While for decades excess weight loss (EWL) has been a traditional measure of the efficacy of bariatric surgery, remission/improvement of metabolic disease (type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, dyslipidemia) and cardiovascular risk reduction are more rational measures of outcomes in metabolic surgery. This chapter aims to define the role of metabolic surgery, review the effects of gastrointestinal surgery on metabolic outcomes from retrospective and observational studies, and review the outcomes of metabolic surgery from prospective randomized controlled trial data.


Cholesterol Obesity Attenuation Androgen Triglyceride 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rene Aleman
    • 1
  • Francesco Rubino
    • 2
  • Emanuele Lo Menzo
    • 3
  • Raul J. Rosenthal
    • 3
  1. 1.Minimally Invasive Surgery and Bariatric Surgery DepartmentCleveland Clinic FloridaWestonUSA
  2. 2.Bariatric and Metabolic SurgeryKing’s College London Consultant, King’s College HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of General SurgeryThe Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, Cleveland Clinic FloridaWestonUSA

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