Neural Plasticity and Its Implications for Therapy
The brain is the source of behavior but is also, in turn, modified by the behavior it produces. This dynamic interactive loop between brain structure and brain function is at the root of the neural basis of cognition, learning, and plasticity. The learning experiences inherent in therapy can alter the way that the brain processes information is a direct reflection of an understanding of how this interactive loop works. From a network modification/plasticity perspective, throughout the development of the brain and its systems, hundreds of systems have to develop adequately, and they also have to integrate with one another in a seamless way with the goal of producing maximally adaptive and successful function. The result of this process must be a degree of automaticity that permits all of the processes to operate in the background so that we can focus our mental energy on the environment, assessing both threats and opportunities
KeywordsNeural plasticity Learning White matter Mirror neurons Mental health
- Alexander, A., Lee, J., Lazar, M., & Field, A. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Neurotherapeutics. 4(3), 316–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurt.2007.05.011.
- Almeida, R., & Lyons, D. (2017). On Myelinated Axon Plasticity and Neuronal Circuit Formation and Function. Journal of Neuroscience, 37(42), 10023–10034. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3185-16.2017.
- Andrade, C., & Kumar Rao, N. (2010). How antidepressant drugs act: A primer on neuroplasticity as the eventual mediator of antidepressant efficacy. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(4), 378–386. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.74318.
- Bandura, A. (1962). Social learning through imitation. In M. J. (Ed), Nebraska Symposium of Motivation (pp. 211–269). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
- Carreiras, M., Seghier, M., Baquero, S., Estévez, A., Lozano, A., Devlin, J., & Price, C. (2009). An anatomical signature for literacy. Nature, 461(7266), 983–986. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08461.
- Cozolino, L. (2018). Neuroscience of psychotherapy. Retrieved from Itineriscoaching.com from http://www.itineriscoaching.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Neuroscience-of-Psychotherapy-Louis-Cozolino.pdf.
- Felmingham, K., Kemp, A., Williams, L., Das, P., Hughes, G., Peduto, A., & Bryant, R. (2007). Changes in anterior cingulate and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Science, 18(2), 127–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01860.x.
- Fields, D. (2010, November 5). Change in the Brain’s white matter the role of the brain’s white matter in active learning and memory may be underestimated. Science, 768–769. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1199139.
- Fields, D. (2013). Changes in brain structure during learning: Fact or Artifact? Reply to Thomas and Baker. Neuroimage, 73, 260–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.08.085.
- Jay, T. (2009). Cellular plasticity and the pathophysiology of depression. In J. Costa e Silva, J. Macher, & J. Olie (Eds.), Neuroplasticity: New Biochemical Mechanisms (pp. 41–56). London: Current Medical Group.Google Scholar
- Liu, B., Liu, J., Wang, M., Zhang, Y., & Li, L. (2017). From serotonin to neuroplasticity: Evolvement of theories for major depressive disorder. Frontiers in Cellular. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2017.00305.
- Mackey, A., Whitaker, K., & Bunge, S. (2012). Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: reasoning training alters structural connectivity. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 22. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2012.00032.
- Melby-Levag M., H. C. (2012). Is working memory training effective? A meta analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 270–291.Google Scholar
- Okuda, T., Yu, L., Cingolani, L., Kemler, R., & Goda, Y. (2007, August 14). B-Catenin regulates excitatory postsynaptic strength at hippocampal synapses. PNAS, 104(33), 13479–13484. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702334104.
- Robinson, S, C. C., Winer, J., Chan, L., Maxwell, J., Anstine, C., … Jantzie, L. (2018). Neonatal erythropoietin mitigates impaired gait, social interaction and diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in a rat model of prenatal brain injury. Experimental Neurology, 302, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.12.010.
- Schlaug, G., Marchina, S., & Norton, A. (2009, July). Evidence for plasticity in white matter tracts of chronic aphasic patients undergoing intense intonation-based speech therapy. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1169, 385–394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04587.x.
- Scholz, J., Klein, M., Behrens, T., & Johansen-Berg, H. (2009). Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience 12, 1370–1371. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2412.
- Tang, Y., Lu, Q., Geng, X., Stein, E., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. PNAS, 107(35), 15649–15652. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011043107.
- Ullen, F. (2009). Is activity regulation of late myelination a plastic mechanism in the human nervous system? Neuron Glia Biology, 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1740925x09990330.
- Wan, C., & Schlaug, G. (2010). Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. Neuroscientist, 16(5), 566–577. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858410377805.
- Wang, K., & Young, K. (2014). White matter plasticity in adulthood. Neuroscience, 12, 276, 148–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.10.018.
- Zattore, R., Fields, R., & Johansen-Berg, H. (2012, March 18). Plasticity in gray and white: Neuroimaging changes in brain structure during learning. Nature Neuroscience, 15(4), 528–536. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3045.