Advertisement

Bystander Intervention: Helping Friends Recognize and Address Deceptive Advances

  • James F. KennyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Victims of crime may experience devastating physical, emotional, psychological, financial, and quality-of-life injuries. As sad as it is to consider the initial suffering, it is tragic to think that many of these victims will have their wounds reopened. Despite the willingness of criminal justice professionals, crime victim advocates, school counselors, and workplace officials to help, survivors may not trust or feel comfortable discussing very personal matters with them. While these targets may be willing to accept help from friends, coworkers, and classmates, these individuals may be reluctant to get involved if they are not sure of what they can or should do. This chapter will discuss strategies to help third parties intervene safely, effectively, and compassionately.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banyard, V. (2008). Measurement and correlates of pro-social bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence. Violence and Victims, 23, 85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baum, K., Cataleno, S., Rand, M., & Rose, K. (2009). Stalking victimization in the United States. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  4. Breiding, M., Smith, S., Basile, K., Walters, M., Chen, J., & Merrick, M. (2014). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner and sexual violence survey. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  5. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2016). Data collection: National crime victimization survey. Retrieved July 14, 2018 from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245
  6. Burgess, A., & Holmstrom, L. (1976). Coping behaviors of the rape victim. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133(4), 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carr, J., & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke, R., & Hormel, R. (1997). A revised classification of situational crime prevention techniques. In S. Lab (Ed.), Crime prevention at a crossroads (pp. 17–27). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.Google Scholar
  9. Domestic Abuse & Sexual Assault Intervention Services (DASAI). (2011). Why doesn’t she just leave. Newton, NJ: DASAI.Google Scholar
  10. Fisher, B., Daigle, L., & Cullen, F. (2010). What distinguishes single from recurrent sexual victims? The role of lifestyle-routine activities and first incident characteristics. Justice Quarterly, 27(1), 102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gelles, R., & Cornell, C. (1997). Intimate violence in families. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Giannelli, P. (1997). Rape trauma syndrome. Criminal Law Bulletin, 33, 270–279.Google Scholar
  13. Government Training Institute. (1998). National symposium on workplace violence. Washington, DC: GTI.Google Scholar
  14. Harrell, E. (2013). Workplace violence against government employees, 1994–2011. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  15. Idaho Coalition Against Sexual and Domestic Violence. (2018). How to help someone who is being stalked. Retrieved September 11, 2018 from: https://www.idvsa.org
  16. Jensen, I., & Gutek, B. (1982). Attributions and assignment of responsibility for sexual harassment. Journal of Social Issues, 38(1), 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kenny, J. (2010). Risk assessment and management teams: A comprehensive approach to early intervention in workplace violence. Journal of Applied Security Research, 5(2), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koss, H. (1985). The hidden rape victim: Personality, attitude, and situational characteristics. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9(2), 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Langton, L., & Truman, J. (2014). Socio-emotional impact of violent crime. Retrieved July 14, 2018 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/sivc.pdf
  20. Maguire, K., & Pastore, A. (1996). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics 1995. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  21. Morgan, R., & Truman, J. (2018). Criminal Victimization (p. 2017). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  22. Mustaine, E., & Tewksbury, R. (1998). Predicting risks of larceny theft victimization: A routine activity analysis using refined lifestyles measures. Criminology, 36(1), 829–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Namie, G., & Namie, R. (2003). The bully at work. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc.Google Scholar
  24. Northwestern National Life Insurance Company. (1993). Fear and violence in the workplace. Minneapolis, MN: Northwestern National Life Benefits Division.Google Scholar
  25. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2016). Guidelines for preventing workplace violence for health and social service workers. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  26. Office of Victims of Crime. (2012). OVC help series for crime victims. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  27. Office on Women’s Health. (2018). How to help a friend who is being abused. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved September 11, 2018 from: https://www.womenshealth.gov
  28. Pease, K. (1998). Repeat victimization: Taking stock. London: Police Research Group.Google Scholar
  29. Planty, M. (2002). Third-party involvement in violent crime, 1993–1999. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  30. Rand, M. (2009). Criminal victimization, 2008. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  31. Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network. (2018). Steps you can take to prevent sexual assault. Retrieved September 11, 2018 from https://www.rainn.org
  32. Robers, S., Zhang, A., Morgan, R., & Musu-Gillette, L. (2015). Indicators of school crime and safety, 2014. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  33. Rugala, E., & Isaacs, A. (2002). Workplace violence. In Issues in response. Quantico, VA: Critical Incident Response Group, FBI Academy.Google Scholar
  34. Schneider, B. (1993). Put up and shut up: Workplace sexual assaults. In B. Bart & E. Moran (Eds.), Violence against women: The bloody footprints (pp. 57–72). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  35. Schwartz, M., & DeKeseredy, W. (1997). Sexual assault on the college campus: The role of male peer support. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  36. Simon, G. (1996). In sheep’s clothing: Understanding & dealing with manipulative people. Little Rock, AR: AJ Christopher and Company.Google Scholar
  37. Step Up. (2018). Sexual assault. Retrieved September 19, 2018 from: https://www.stepupprogram.org/topics/sexual-assault
  38. Tabachnick, J. (2009). Engaging bystanders in sexual violence prevention. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.Google Scholar
  39. Tyler, M. (1998). Handling traumatic events: A supervisor’s handbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Personnel Management.Google Scholar
  40. U.S. Department of Labor. (2004). Guidelines for preventing workplace violence for health care and social service workers. Washington, DC: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.Google Scholar
  41. Walker, L. (1979). The battered woman. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  42. Women Against Violence Against Women. (2005). Rape myths. Vancouver, Canada: WAVAW.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fairleigh Dickinson UniversityTeaneckUSA

Personalised recommendations