This chapter summarizes the key findings of the book: What kinds of questions are Westermarck and Durkheim asking when animals appear in their texts? What are the main differences between Westermarck’s and Durkheim’s ideas on human–animal relations and how are these views reflected in their views on sociology as a discipline? The challenge of bringing animals back into sociology is also discussed. Is sociology ready to face the animal others and to recognize their similarities with humans—and could we accept our own human animality?
KeywordsPosthumanism Classical sociology Westermarck Durkheim History of sociology Sociological animal studies
- Arluke, A., & Hafferty, F. (1996) From apprehension to fascination with dog lab: The uses of absolutions by medical students. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 25, 201–225.Google Scholar
- Birke, Lynda (1994) Feminism, animals and science: the naming of the shrew. Open University Press, Buckingham.Google Scholar
- Latour, Bruno (1993) We Have Never Been Modern. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Originally published in French 1991.Google Scholar
- de Waal, Frans (2001) The Ape and The Sushi Master. Cultural reflections of a primatologist. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
- de Waal, Frans (2006) Primates and Philosophers. How Morality Evolved. Edited and introduced by Stephen Macedo and Josiah Ober. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.Google Scholar
- de Waal, Frans (2012) Down with Dualism! Two Millennia of Debate About Human Goodness. In Species Matters. Humane Advocacy and Cultural Theory. (eds.) Marianne DeKoven and Michael Lundblad. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Derrida, Jacques (2002) The Animal That Therefore I Am (More to Follow). Translated by David Wills. This article represents the first part of a ten-hour address Derrida gave at the third Cerisy-la-Salle conference devoted to his work, in July 1997. Critical Inquiry Vol. 28, No. 2 (Winter, 2002). The University of Chicago Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1344276. Accessed 10 Sep 2017.
- Durkheim, Émile [1912 (1915)] The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. George Allen & Unwind Ltd, London. Translated from the French by Joseph Ward Swain. Originally published in French 1912 (Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41360/41360-h/41360-h.htm. Accessed 30 May 2017.
- Haraway, Donna (2003) The Companion Species Manifesto. Dogs, people and significant otherness. Prickly Paradigm Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Timosaari, Niina (2017) Edvard Westermarck. Totuuden etsijä. Gaudeamus, Tallinna.Google Scholar