Different Ideas of Humans of Durkheim and Westermarck

  • Salla Tuomivaara
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series book series (PMAES)


In this chapter, connections of Durkheim’s and Westermarck’s views on animals to their wider sociological thinking are analysed. Durkheim’s emphasis on human–animal difference and duality of human nature and Westermarck’s views on similarities between humans and other species and continuity of their characteristics are discussed. These views are reflected in these two sociologists’ visions on human social behaviour and society—what these phenomena are about and how they should be studied. These visions in turn affect how these sociologists see the importance of boundaries for the study of society and human social behaviour: if they see that there should be connections and what kind of connections between the study of different human societies and human and animal societies.


Human-animal continuity Human-animal boundary Durkheim Westermarck Classical sociology 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Salla Tuomivaara
    • 1
  1. 1.HelsinkiFinland

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