Stakeholders’ Engagement in Quality Assurance in Vietnam

  • Huong Thi PhamEmail author


Stakeholder engagement has become a norm in higher education governance in many countries. The main purpose of this chapter is to discuss the extent to which different particular stakeholders have engaged in quality assurance (QA) processes in other countries, followed by discussion of the current state of affairs of stakeholders’ engagement in QA in Vietnam. Any possible challenges to build a common understanding among stakeholders will also be discussed. The chapter will end up with recommendations to the Vietnamese government and higher education institutions on how both can develop and deepen this engagement and open up academic discussions on the future development of this engagement in the country.


Stakeholders’ engagement Quality assurance Higher education Vietnam 


  1. Alves, H., Mainardes, E. W., & Raposo, M. (2010). A relationship approach to higher education institution stakeholder management. Tertiary Education and Management, 16(3), 159–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beerkens, M. (2015). Quality assurance in the political context: In the midst of different expectations conflicting goals. Quality in Higher Education, 21(3), 231–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beerkens, M., & Udam, M. (2017). Stakeholders in higher education quality assurance: Richness in diversity? Higher Education Policy, 30(3), 341–359. Scholar
  4. Benneworth, P., & Jongbloed, B. (2010). Who matters to universities? A stakeholder perspective on humanities, arts and social sciences valorisation. Higher Education, 59(5), 567–588. Scholar
  5. Bologna Secretariat. (2007). Bologna process stocktaking—London 2007. Retrieved from
  6. Burrows, J. (1999). Going beyond labels: A framework for profiling institutional stakeholders. Contemporary Education, 70(4), 5–10.Google Scholar
  7. DAAD. (2016). State of affairs and development needs—Higher education quality assurance in the ASEAN region.Google Scholar
  8. Danø, T., & Stensaker, B. (2007). Still balancing improvement and accountability? Developments in external quality assurance in the Nordic Countries 1996–2006. Quality in Higher Education, 13(1), 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diamond, R. M. (2008). Designing and assessing courses and curricula: A practical guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Eaton, J. S. (2004). Accreditation and recognition of qualifications in higher education: The United States. In Quality and recognition in higher education (pp. 63–74). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  11. ENQA. (2014). Report of the ENQA working group on stakeholder involvement in quality assurance practices. Retrieved from
  12. ENQA, ESU, EUA, & EURASHE. (2015). Standards and guidelines for quality assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG). Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  13. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  14. Green, D. (1994). What is quality in higher education? Concepts, policy and practice. In D. Green (Ed.), What is Quality in Higher Education? (pp. 3–20). Buckingham: SRHE/OU Press.Google Scholar
  15. Jongbloed, B., Enders, J., & Salerno, C. (2008). Higher education and its communities: Interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Higher Education, 56, 303–324.Google Scholar
  16. Kis, V. (2005). Quality assurance in tertiary education: Current practices in OECD countries and a literature review on potential effects. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  17. Leisyte, L., & Dee, J. (2012). Changing academic practices and identities in Europe and the US: Critical perspectives. In J. C. Smart & M. B. Paulsen (Eds.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Leisyte, L., & Westerheijden, D. F. (2014). Stakeholders and quality assurance in higher education. In H. Eggins (Ed.), Drivers and barriers to achieving quality in higher education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Matei, L., & Iwinska, J. (2016). Quality assurance in higher education: A practical handbook Budapest. Hungary: Central European University.Google Scholar
  20. McDowell, L., & Sambell, K. (1999). Fitness for purpose in the assessment of learning: Students as stakeholders. Quality in Higher Education, 5(2), 107–123. Scholar
  21. Mitchel, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 27, 853–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nguyen, H. C. (2018). How to fulfil Vietnam’s higher education accreditation strategic plan 2017–2020? International Journal of Educational Organization and Leadership, 24(3/4), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nguyen, H. C., Evers, C., & Marshall, S. (2017). Accreditation of Viet Nam’s higher education: Achievements and challenges after a dozen years of development. Quality Assurance in Education, 25(4), 475–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nguyen, H. C., & Ta, T. T. H. (2018). Exploring impact of accreditation on higher education in developing countries: A Vietnamese view. Tertiary Education and Management, 24(2), 154–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. OECD. (2002). Responding to student expectations. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. OECD. (2008). Tertiary education for the knowledge society. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  27. Pham, T. H. (2014). Quality culture in Vietnamese universities: A multiple case study of quality assurance and quality culture of business English undergraduate programmes at three universities in Vietnam (Doctoral thesis), Victoria University of Wellington,Google Scholar
  28. Pham, T. H., & Starkey, L. (2016). Perceptions of higher education quality at three universities in Vietnam. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(3), 369–393. Scholar
  29. Santiago, P., Tremblay, K., Basri, E., & Arnal, E. (2008). Tertiary education for the knowledge society, Volume 1. Special features: Governance, funding, quality. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  30. Smeby, J.-C., & Stensaker, B. (1999). National quality assessment systems in the Nordic countries: developing a balance between external and internal needs? Higher Education Policy, 12(1), 3–14. Scholar
  31. Srikanthan, G., & Dalrymple, J. (2003). Developing alternative perspectives for quality in higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 17(3), 126–136.Google Scholar
  32. Stensaker, B., & Vabø, A. (2013). Re-inventing shared governance: Implications for organisational culture and institutional leadership. Higher Education Quarterly, 67(3), 256–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ulewicz, R. (2017). The role of stakeholders in quality assurance in higher education. Human Resources Management & Ergonomics, 11, 93–107.Google Scholar
  34. Watson, D. (2012). Who runs our universities? Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, 16(2), 41–45.Google Scholar
  35. Watty, K. (2003). When will academics learn about quality? Quality in Higher Education, 9(3), 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Westerheijden, D. F., Epping, E., Faber, M., Leisyte, L., & De Weert, E. (2013). Stakeholders and quality assurance. Journal of the European Higher Education Area, 4, 71–85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ho Chi Minh City University of EducationHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations