Claws & Teeth: The Militarization of Nature

  • Alexander Dunlap
  • Jostein Jakobsen


In this chapter, we bring total extractivism into view of the militarization of nature. This involves an extensive review of research into the violent technologies of extraction, including studies of the requisite levels of land control and territorialization for sustaining and accelerating the present techno-capitalist trajectory. Through this review, we seek to draw out the political reactions ‘from above’ from governmental, corporate and elite actors as it relates to the conventional and so-called green military, police and extra-judicial forces, but also ‘soft’ pacification techniques. In doing so, this chapter presents the violent domination and manipulation—the ‘claws and teeth’ of the Worldeater—underpinning total extractivism.


Militarization Violence Counterinsurgency Pacification Political ecology 


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Dunlap
    • 1
  • Jostein Jakobsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Development & the EnvironmentUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

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