Introduction to Industry, University, and Government Partnerships: Theoretical Model
The world has recognized the role and significance of innovation for the economic and social development and national prosperity. The primary players involved in synergizing the innovative capabilities and outcomes for establishing a knowledge-based ecosystem are industries, universities, and government. The partnerships between industry, university and government create opportunities to translate the fundamental research into value-driven products and services. The mechanism of these partnerships has evolved over time—from statist and Laissez faire to the modern triple helix model, where the roles of industries, universities and government are balanced but interdependent and supportive of each other. The key drivers of knowledge-intensive development include institutional and cultural settings, legislations or regulations, support programs, and the promotional structures and mechanisms. Besides introducing the triple helix model and the drivers of knowledge ecosystem, this chapter will present the objectives, motivations, and the organization of chapters in this book.
- Etzkowitz, H. (2002). The triple helix of university-industry-government: Implications for policy and evaluation. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=The+Triple+Helix+of+University+-+Industry+-+Government+Implications+for+Policy+and+Evaluation&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5.
- Etzkowitz, H., Gulbrandsen, M., & Levitt, J. (2000). Public venture capital: Government funding sources for technology entrepreneurs. New York: Harcourt-Brace.Google Scholar
- Manley, K. (2002). The systems approach to innovation studies. AJIS, 9(2), 95–102.Google Scholar
- Mowery, D. C., & Sampat, B. N. (2005). The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 and university–industry technology transfer: A model for other OECD governments? Journal of Technology Transfer, 30(1/2), 115–127.Google Scholar
- OECD. (1996). The knowledge-based economy. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar