Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Krista Lim-Hing
  • Wan-Tsu W. ChangEmail author


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality especially among young individuals. Severity of traumatic brain injury is determined by a combination of clinical and radiological features. Care during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury is focused on minimizing secondary brain injury by maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion and management of elevated intracranial pressure. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays a pivotal role in initial diagnosis and monitoring of associated complications. Early placement of an intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor may be indicated if concerned for intracranial hypertension. Timely evacuation of hematoma and surgical decompression can be lifesaving in certain cases. Patients likely to benefit from surgery depend on clinical presentation and CT findings. In this chapter, we discuss the principles of pre-hospital and intensive care management. Role of advanced multimodal neuromonitoring techniques and conflicting evidence of various treatments in traumatic brain injury are also addressed.


Traumatic brain injury Subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma Blunt cerebrovascular injury Cerebral contusion Decompressive craniectomy Post-traumatic seizure Brain tissue oxygen monitoring Cerebral microdialysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NeurologyUniversity of Maryland Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Emergency MedicineUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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