Approach to Encephalitis in the ICU

  • Anne Damian
  • Arun VenkatesanEmail author


Encephalitis refers to an inflammatory disorder of brain parenchyma, with a broad etiologic differential diagnosis. Encephalitis may present with a wide variety of associated neurologic symptoms, though most commonly presents with encephalopathy. Given the wide differential diagnosis for encephalopathy, a broad work-up is necessary to exclude alternate diagnoses. Encephalitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; therefore, prompt recognition and management is paramount to increasing the likelihood of a favorable outcome. Patients with encephalitis frequently require monitoring in a neurological ICU, often with prolonged admissions. This chapter will review a general approach to the care of adults with encephalitis, focusing on practical aspects of ICU management encephalitis and its complications.


ADEM Arbovirus Autoimmune encephalitis Herpes simplex virus Limbic encephalitis Mycobacterium tuberculosis New-onset refractory status epilepticus SREAT 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyJohns Hopkins Encephalitis Center, Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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