Chronic Cardiac Disorders

  • Elisa Salsano
  • Paquale Abete


Chronic heart disease (CHF) is the presence of heart failure for some time. It could be stable or decompensated according to the time of the durability of signs and symptoms. CHF may require treatment with oxygen and NIV. The goals vary according to the clinical scenarios. There is good evidence in the treatment of CHF-associated sleep breathing disorders (SBD). The application in palliative and end-of-life context requires some specific ethical and clinical evaluations.



Chronic heart failure


Chronic heart failure and central sleep apnoea


Heart failure


Sleep breathing disorders


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisa Salsano
    • 1
  • Paquale Abete
    • 2
  1. 1.U.O.C. di GeriatriaOspedale di Circolo Fondazione Macchi di VareseVareseItaly
  2. 2.Geriatric WardUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

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