Age has never been demonstrated itself as a predictor of failure; even among elder people, NIV success depends on the same variables as among younger ones: cause of ARF, disease and hypoxia severity. Specific variables such as chronic health status and cough strength may influence NIV success. Therefore, age itself should not be considered a limit for NIV use.
Evidences about cancer and DNI patients are even more lacking and almost only pertain hematologic neoplasms; nevertheless, usual predictors of failure (pO22/FiO2, respiratory rate, pH, disease severity) hold true. Infection and progression of solid cancers may be risk factors for NIV failure.
Future studies should focus on some unknown points: predictors of failure among end-stage chronic disease other than neoplasia (COPD, end-stage cardiomyopathy), among terminally ill neuromuscular and restrictive patients or predictors of NIV intolerance.
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