Predictors of Outcome of NIV in Elder, Palliative, and End-of-Life Care Patients

  • Francesco Panero
  • Franco Aprà


Age has never been demonstrated itself as a predictor of failure; even among elder people, NIV success depends on the same variables as among younger ones: cause of ARF, disease and hypoxia severity. Specific variables such as chronic health status and cough strength may influence NIV success. Therefore, age itself should not be considered a limit for NIV use.

Evidences about cancer and DNI patients are even more lacking and almost only pertain hematologic neoplasms; nevertheless, usual predictors of failure (pO22/FiO2, respiratory rate, pH, disease severity) hold true. Infection and progression of solid cancers may be risk factors for NIV failure.

Future studies should focus on some unknown points: predictors of failure among end-stage chronic disease other than neoplasia (COPD, end-stage cardiomyopathy), among terminally ill neuromuscular and restrictive patients or predictors of NIV intolerance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Panero
    • 1
  • Franco Aprà
    • 1
  1. 1.U.O. Area Critica, Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, ASL Città di TorinoTorinoItaly

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