New Brominated Flame Retardants in the Environment of Developing Countries

  • Nadeem AliEmail author
  • Khurram Shahzad
  • Ehtisham Nazar
  • Nabil A. Alhakamy
  • Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim Ismail
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
  • Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 57)


The environmental occurrence of new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in the emerging economies has been reviewed in the current chapter. The strict regulations about the manufacturing and usage of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants lead to the development and increased use of NBFRs to satisfy the fire and safety guidelines. These NBFRs are assumed to be harmless for the usage, but current studies have shown their occurrence in different environmental media and have raised questions on their use. In this chapter, the presence of NBFRs in different environmental matrices such as air, dust, food, water, humans, etc. has been reviewed. Finally, the investigation gaps were figured out with commendations for forthcoming research work.


New brominated flame retardants Developing countries Human exposure 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadeem Ali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Khurram Shahzad
    • 1
  • Ehtisham Nazar
    • 2
  • Nabil A. Alhakamy
    • 3
  • Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim Ismail
    • 1
    • 4
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
    • 1
  • Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani
    • 5
  1. 1.Center of Excellence in Environmental StudiesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan
  3. 3.Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics DepartmentKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Health and Environment Division, Department of BiosciencesCOMSATS UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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