Advertisement

Managing Electronic Waste Pollution: Policy Options and Challenges

  • Muhammad AbidEmail author
  • Farhad Zulfiqar
  • Mohsin Raza
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 57)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the current status and management of e-waste in Pakistan, with an emphasis on describing the key sources, impacts, and challenges in the management of e-waste in the country. Further, this study also discussed in detail different policy options and mechanisms that could be used to sustainably manage e-waste in Pakistan. The findings of the study highlight that the domestic production and imports of e-waste in Pakistan are rapidly growing due to increasing local consumption and low restrictions on the import of used electronic equipment. It has been observed that the recycling of e-waste is being done without any precautionary measures and is becoming a leading source of many environmental and health problems in most of the urban hubs. Lack of awareness about e-waste among the general public, importers, as well as scrap dealers and lack of regulation and implementation constraints are the major challenges in the management of e-waste in the country. Further, it is found that there is no inventory of e-waste in Pakistan available that also limits authorities in taking serious actions against unsustainable recycling of e-waste. In order to sustainably manage e-waste in Pakistan, there is a serious need for effective legislation and policy framework for refurbished and secondhand imports. Further, Pakistan also needs to take measures to fulfill its international commitments on Basel convention and e-waste filtration prevention. Further, stakeholder training and awareness on the hazardous impacts of e-waste on local environmental and health need to be conducted at different scales.

Keywords

Electronic-waste E-waste management E-waste challenges Sustainable measures Pakistan 

References

  1. Abbas Z (2010) E-waste management in Pakistan. In: Regional workshop on e-waste/WEEE management. Osaka, Japan, 6–9 July 2010Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed Z (2014) Local manufacturing, benefits to industry, economy and recommendations. Pak. Today. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2014/05/28/business/local-manufacturing-benefits-to-industry-economy-andrecommendations/. Accessed 13 Mar 2019
  3. Balde CP, Wang F, Kuehr R, Huisman J (2015) The global E-waste monitor, 2014. United Nations University, IAS e SCYCLE, Bonn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  4. BAN, Greenpeace-China (2002) Exporting harm: the high-tech trashing of Asia. Basel Action Net work (BAN) and Greenpeace-ChinaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bashar A (2000) Electronics industry threatened by tariff discrepancies, corruption and smuggling. In: Pakistan and Gulf Economist, 19–25 June 2000Google Scholar
  6. Breivik K, Armitage JM, Wania F, Jones KC (2014) Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up? Environ Sci Technol 48(15):8735–8743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cobbing M (2008) Toxic tech: not in our backyard. Uncovering the hidden flows of E-waste. Report from Greenpeace International. http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/belgium/fr/press/reports/toxic-tech.pdf. Accessed 25 Aug 2019
  8. GoP (2016) Trade Policy 2015-16, Ministry of Commerce, Government of Pakistan. http://pakistanembassy.se/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/banned-items-to-import-to-Pakistan.pdf. Accessed 25 Aug 2019
  9. Gupta KS (2007) E-waste management: teaching how to reduce, reuse and recycle for sustainable development-need of some educational strategies. J Educ Pract 2:74–86Google Scholar
  10. Hussain A (2012) A perspective on Pakistan’s economic history: growth, economic structure and governance. In: Jalal A (ed) The Oxford companion to Pakistani history. Oxford University Press, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  11. Imran M, Haydar S, Kim J, Rizwan M, Ali A (2017) E-waste flows, resource recovery and improve ment of legal framework in Pakistan. Resour Conserv Recycl 125(June):131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. International BM (2015) Pakistan consumer electronics report, 26 Feb. 2015Google Scholar
  13. Iqbal M, Breivik K, Syed JH, Malik RN, Li J, Zhang G, Jones KC (2015) Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: a review of status, research needs and data gaps. Environ Pollut 207:308–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Iqbal M, Syed JH, Breivik K, Jamshed M, Chaudhry I, Li J, Zhang G (2017) E-waste driven pol lution in Pakistan: the first evidence of environmental and human exposure to flame retardants (FRs) in Karachi City. Environ Sci Technol 51(23):13895–13905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Katharina KP (2013) The basel convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. Proc Annu Meet (Am Soc Int Law) 107:434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan AA, Ahmed Z, Siddiqui MA (2012) Issues with solid waste management in South Asian countries: a situational analysis of Pakistan. J Environ Occup Sci 1(2):129–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Masood M, Barlow CY, Wilson DC (2014) An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan. Waste Manag Res 32:834–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nawaz A, Shahbaz MA, Javed M (2015) Management of organic content in municipal solid waste-a case study of Lahore. Int J Environ Waste Manag 15(1):15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. PEPA (1997) Pakistan environmental protection act, 1997, p. 29. PakistanGoogle Scholar
  20. PTA-Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (2018) Cellular subscriptions in Pakistan. Available https://www.pta.gov.pk/en/telecom-indicators. Accessed 01 Nov 2018
  21. Radha G (2002) A study of the performance of the Indian IT sector’ at www.nautilus.org. Accessed 21 Jun 2018
  22. Raza A (2010) CDGL head in the sand over e-waste. News 2010. http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-5-332-CDGL-head-in-the-sand-over-ewaste
  23. Saeed A (2013) Dangerous labour: the little known e-waste phenomenon. The Dawn, July 30, 2017. https://www.dawn.com/news/1032967. Accessed 25 Aug 2019
  24. Siddique A, Mumtaz M, Zaigham NA, Mallick KA, Saied S, Zahir E, Khwaja HA (2009) Heavy metal toxicity levels in the coastal sediments of the Arabian Sea along the urban Karachi (Pakistan) region. Mar Pollut Bull 58(9):1406–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH (2013) Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ 463–464:1147–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Syed M (2013) The pricetag. Dawn 2013. http://www.dawn.com/news/1047748
  27. Terazono A, Murakami S, Abe N, Inanc B, Moriguchi Y, Sakai S-i, Kojima M, Yoshida A, Li J, Yang J (2006) Current status and research on e-waste issues in Asia. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 8(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Umair S (2015) Informal electronic waste recycling in Pakistan. KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  29. Umair S, Bjorklund A, Petersen EE (2013) Social life cycle inventory and impact assessment of informal recycling of electronic ICT waste in Pakistan. In: Hilty L, Aebischer E, Andersson G, Lohmann W (eds) Proceedings of the first international conference on information and communication technologies for sustainability. ETH, Zurich, pp 52–58Google Scholar
  30. UNEP (2014) The basel convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. Châtelaine, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  31. Widmer R, Oswald-Krapf H, Sinha-Khetriwal D, Schnellmann M, Heinz B¨n (2005) Global perspectives on e-waste. Environ Impact Assess Rev 25:436–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yu J, Williams E, Ju M, Shao C (2010) Managing e-waste in China: policies, pilot projects and alternative approaches. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:991–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Climate Research and DevelopmentCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations