Advertisement

The Emergence of Communitarian Challenges: 1400s–1600s

  • Henry TamEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter establishes the analytical framework for examining ideas on how communities should develop in relation to three key questions: (1) What should people care about? (2) What should people believe? (3) What actions should people decide to take? The Reciprocal approach to dealing with these questions, which underpins communitarian thinking, is contrasted with the Detached; the Egoistic; and the Absolutist approaches. The chapter goes on to bring out the distinctive features of emergent communitarian ideas from the Renaissance (Salutati, Bruni, Erasmus, Paracelsus, Machiavelli, More) to the seventeenth century, during which significant intellectual and political proposals were put forward for mutual responsibility (Winstanley, Penn); cooperative enquiry (Bacon, Wilkins, and the Royal Society); and citizen participation (the Levellers, Harrington, Sidney). These were neither Hobbesian nor Lockean, but characteristically communitarian.

References

  1. Bacon, F. (1973). The Advancement of Learning (G. W. Kitchin, Ed.). London: J. M. Dent & Sons.Google Scholar
  2. Baron, H. (1955). The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism and Republican Liberty in an Age of Classicism and Tyranny. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bock, G., Skinner, Q., & Viroli, M. (Eds.). (1990). Machiavelli and Republicanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brailsford, H. N. (1976). The Levellers and the English Revolution. Nottingham: Spokesman.Google Scholar
  5. Dash, M. (2011). Emperor Wang Mang: China’s First Socialist? The Smithsonian. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/emperor-wang-mang-chinas-first-socialist-2402977/.
  6. Davis, J. C. (1981). Utopia & the Ideal Society: A Study of English Utopian Writing 1516–1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Everdell, W. R. (2000). The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Feuer, L. S. (1992). The Scientific Intellectual: The Psychological and Sociological Origins of Modern Science. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Fryer, J. (Ed.). (1991). George Fox and the Children of the Light. London: Kyle Cathie.Google Scholar
  10. Hankins, J. (1996). Humanism and the Origins of Modern Political Thought. In J. Kraye (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism (pp. 118–141). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harrington, J. (1992). The Commonwealth of Oceana (J. G. A. Pocock, Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hepworth Dixon, W. (1902). A History of William Penn: Founder of Pennsylvania. New York: New Amsterdam Book.Google Scholar
  13. Hill, C. (1955). The English Revolution, 1640. Dagenham: Lawrence & Wishart.Google Scholar
  14. Hill, C. (1965). Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Honohan, I. (2002). Civic Republicanism. Abington: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Israel, J. I. (1995). The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477–1806. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Machiavelli, N. (1970). The Discourses. London: Pelican Books.Google Scholar
  18. Machiavelli, N. (2011). The Prince. London: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
  19. Macpherson, C. B. (1962). The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. More, T. (2003). Utopia (P. Turner, Trans.). London: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
  21. More, T. (2005). The History of King Richard the Third. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Overton, R. (1998). A Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens. In Sharp (1998), pp. 33–53.Google Scholar
  23. Perez-Ramos, A. (1988). Francis Bacon’s Idea of Science and the Maker’s Knowledge Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  24. Purver, M. (1967). The Royal Society: Concept and Creation. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Rawson, E. (1983). Cicero: A Portrait. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co.Google Scholar
  26. Rubinstein, N. (1990). Machiavelli and Florentine Republican Experience. In Bock et al. (1990), pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
  27. Sharp, A. (Ed.). (1998). The English Levellers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Sidney, A. (1996). The Discourses Concerning Government (T. West, Ed.). Indianapolis: Liberty Fund Classics.Google Scholar
  29. Skinner, Q. (1990a). Machiavelli’s Discorsi and the Pre-humanist Origins of Republican Ideas. In Bock et al. (1990), pp 121–142.Google Scholar
  30. Skinner, Q. (1990b). The Republican Ideal of Political Liberty. In Bock et al. (1990), pp. 293‒309.Google Scholar
  31. Skinner, Q. (1992). On Justice, the Common Good and the Priority of Liberty. In C. Mouffe (Ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy (pp. 211–224). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  32. Steel, C. (2013). The End of the Roman Republic 146 to 44 BC. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Tam, H. (2018). What Should Citizens Believe? Sheffield: Citizen Network.Google Scholar
  34. Tuck, R. (1990). Humanism and Political Thought. In A. Goodman & A. MacKay (Eds.), The Impact of Humanism on Western Europe (pp. 43–65). Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  35. Urbach, P. (1987). Francis Bacon’s Philosophy of Science. La Salle: Open Court.Google Scholar
  36. Ward, L. (2004). The Politics of Liberty in England and Revolutionary America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Winstanley, G. (1973). The Law of Freedom and Other Writings (C. Hill, Ed.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  38. Zagorin, P. (1997). A History of Political Thought in the English Revolution. Bristol: Thoemmes Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations