Effective Prevention and Intervention for Word-Level Reading Difficulties

  • David A. KilpatrickEmail author
  • Shawn O’Brien


The research on the prevention and intervention for word reading problems is reviewed in two parts. First, several key issues are addressed that bear on understanding the findings from the vast reading intervention literature. These include (1) interpreting intervention research in light of the findings from studies of orthographic learning, (2) examining assumptions inherent in current intervention approaches, (3) understanding why some students require intervention in the first place, (4) distinguishing research-based principles from research-based programs, and (5) examining the best ways to determine the effectiveness of interventions for word reading problems. Second, key intervention research findings are examined through the lens of the preliminary issues discussed in the first section. These findings reveal very positive prospects for preventing a large portion of reading difficulties based on modifications to general education classroom instruction. They also show that very substantial reading improvements can be made by struggling readers if the most effective principles are applied to our intervention efforts.


Dyslexia intervention Dyslexia prevention Phonics intervention Phonemic awareness intervention 


  1. Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, Y., Wagner, R. K., & Kantor, P. T. (2012). How visual word recognition is affected by developmental dyslexia. In J. S. Adelman (Ed.), Visual word recognition (Vol. 2, pp. 196–215)., Meaning and context, individuals and development New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, A. W., Andersen, H. G., Heilman, P. C., Voeller, K. K. S., & Torgesen, J. K. (1991). Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 193–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Algozzine, B., & Lockavith, J. F. (1998). Effects of the failure free reading program on students at-risk for reading failure. Special Services in the Schools, 13(1–2), 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2009). Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics, 124, 837–844. Scholar
  6. Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., & Wilkinson, I. A. G. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: Report of the commission on reading. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Education.Google Scholar
  7. Balu, R., Zhu, P., Doolittle, F., Schiller, E., Jenkins, J., & Gersten, R. (2015). Evaluation of response to intervention practices for elementary school reading (NCEE 2016-4000). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, I. L., & Beck, M. E. (2013). Making sense of phonics, second edition: The hows and whys. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Bhat, P., Griffin, C. C., & Sindelar, P. T. (2003). Phonological awareness instruction for middle school students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blachman, B. A., Schatschneider, C., Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Clonan, S. M., Shaywitz, B. A., et al. (2004). Effects of intensive reading remediation for second and third graders and a 1-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 444–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bloomfield, L., & Barnhart, C. L. (1961). Let’s read: A linguistic approach. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers’ views of research-based practices. Journal of Special Education, 39(3), 168–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bond, G. L., & Dykstra, R. (1967). The cooperative research program in first-grade reading instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 2(4), 5–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brady, S. A. (2011). Efficacy of phonics teaching for reading outcomes: Indications from post-NRP research. In S. A. Brady, D. Braze, & C. A. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading: Theory and evidence (pp. 69–96). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bus, A. G., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1999). Phonological awareness and early reading: A meta-analysis of experimental training studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cardoso-Martins, C., Resende, S. Mamede, & Rodrigues, L. Assunção. (2002). Letter name knowledge and the ability to learn to read by processing letter-phoneme relations in words: Evidence from Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15(3–4), 409–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chall, J. S., & Popp, H. M. (1996). Teaching and assessing phonics: Why, what, when, how. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  18. Chard, D. J., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Baker, S. K., Doabler, C., & Apichatabutra, C. (2009). Repeated reading interventions for students with learning disabilities: Status of the evidence. Exceptional Children, 75(3), 263–281.Google Scholar
  19. Christodoulou, J. A., Cyr, A., Murtagh, J., Chang, P., Lin, J., Guarino, A. J., et al. (2017). Impact of intensive summer reading intervention for children with reading disabilities and difficulties in early elementary school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(2), 115–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crowder, R. G., & Wagner, R. K. (1992). The psychology of reading: An introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., Stanovich, K. E., & Share, D. L. (2002). Orthographic learning during reading: Examining the role of self-teaching. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 82, 185–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (2004). Knowledge of K-3 teachers and their knowledge calibration in the domain of early literacy. Annals of Dyslexia, 54, 139–167.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dehaene, S., & Cohen, L. (2011). The unique role of the visual word form area in reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(6), 254–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dixon, M., Stuart, M., & Masterson, J. (2002). The relationship between phonological awareness and the development of orthographic representations. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15(3–4), 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edmonds, M. S., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Reutebuch, C. K., Cable, A., & Tackett, K. K. (2009). A synthesis of reading interventions and effects on reading outcomes for older struggling readers. Review of Educational Research, 79, 262–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ehri, L. C. (2005). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 167–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehri, L. C. (2014). Orthographic mapping in the acquisition of sight word reading, spelling memory, and vocabulary learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Stahl, S. A., & Willows, D. M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 71(3), 393–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ehri, L. C., & Saltmarsh, J. (1995). Beginning readers outperform older disabled readers in learning to read words by sight. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 295–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Moody, S. W. (2000). How effective are one-to-one tutoring programs in reading for elementary students at risk for reading failure? A meta-analysis of the intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 605–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flynn, L. J., Zheng, X., & Swanson, H. L. (2012). Instructing struggling older readers: A selective meta-analysis of intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27(1), 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2018). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  33. Foorman, B., et al. (2016). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade (NCEE 2016-4008). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  34. Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frijters, J. C., Lovett, M. W., Sevcik, R. A., & Morris, R. D. (2013). Four methods of identifying change in the context of a multiple component reading intervention for struggling middle school readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 539–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to Intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. (NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  37. Goodman, K. S. (1996). On reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  38. Goodman, K. S. (2005). Making sense of written language: A lifelong journey. Journal of Literacy Research, 37, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2009). Developmental disorders of language learning and cognition. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Hyönä, J., & Olson, R. K. (1995). Eye fixation patterns among dyslexic and normal readers: effects of word length and word frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(6), 1430–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacobson, C. (1999). How persistent is reading disability? Individual growth curves in reading. Dyslexia, 5, 78–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1987). Substance over style: Assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching. Exceptional Children, 54(3), 228–239.Google Scholar
  44. Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., & Olson, R. K. (2008). Reading comprehension tests vary in the skills they assess: Differential dependence on decoding and oral comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(3), 281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2009). Altering cortical connectivity: Remediation-induced changes in the white matter of poor readers. Neuron, 64, 624–631.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kilpatrick, D. A. (2015). Essentials of assessing, preventing, and overcoming reading difficulties. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Kilpatrick, D. A. (2018). Incorporating recent advances in understanding word-reading skills into specific learning disability diagnoses: The case of orthographic mapping. In D. P. Flanagan & E. M. McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (4th ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  48. Kuder, S. J. (1990). Effectiveness of DISTAR reading program for children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(1), 69–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuster, S. M., van Weerdenburg, M., Gompel, M., & Bosman, A. M. T. (2018). Dyslexie font does not benefit reading in children with or without dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 68, 25–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Laing, E., & Hulme, C. (1999). Phonological and semantic processes influence beginning readers’ ability to learn to read words. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 73, 183–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee, J., & Yoon, S. Y. (2017). The effects of repeated reading on reading fluency for students with reading disabilities: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(2), 213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lovett, M. W., Borden, S. L., DeLuca, T., Lacerenza, L., Benson, N. J., & Brackstone, D. (1994). Treating the core deficits of developmental dyslexia: Evidence of transfer of learning after phonologically- and strategy-based reading training programs. Developmental Psychology, 30(6), 805–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., Borden, S. L., Frijters, J. C., Steinbach, K. A., & De Palma, M. (2000). Components of effective remediation for developmental reading disabilities: Combining phonological and strategy-based instruction to improve outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., De Palma, M., & Frijters, J. C. (2012). Evaluating the efficacy of remediation for struggling readers in high school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(2), 151–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maughan, B., Hagell, H., Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1994). Poor readers in secondary school. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 6, 125–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McGuinness, C., McGuinness, D., & McGuinness, G. (1996). Phono-Graphix: A new method for remediating reading difficulties. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 73–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mitchell, C., & Begeny, J. C. (2014). Improving student reading through parents’ implementation of a structured reading program. School Psychology Review, 43(1), 41–58.Google Scholar
  58. Moats, L. C. (1994). Missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 81–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moats, L. (2009). Still wanted: Teachers with knowledge of language. Introduction to special issue. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(5), 387–391.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morris, R. D., Steubing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 347–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. NAEP. (2015). National assessment of educational progress: Nation’s report card. Washington, D. C.: Institute for Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
  62. NAEP. (2017). National assessment of educational progress: Nation’s report card. Washington, D. C.: Institute for Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  63. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the national reading panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  64. Nelson, J. M., & Machek, G. R. (2007). A survey of training, practice, and competence in reading assessment and intervention. School Psychology Review, 36(2), 311–327.Google Scholar
  65. O’Connor, R. E., White, A., & Swanson, H. L. (2007). Repeated reading versus continuous reading: Influences on reading fluency and comprehension. Exceptional Children, 74(1), 31–46.Google Scholar
  66. Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Protopapas, A., Sideridis, G. D., Mouzaki, A., & Simos, P. G. (2011). Matthew effects in read- ing comprehension: Myth or reality? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(5), 402–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rack, J., Hulme, C., Snowling, M., & Wightman, J. (1994). The role of phonology in young children’s learning of sight words: The direct mapping hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 57, 42–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rashotte, C. A., MacPhee, K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2001). Effectiveness of a group reading instruction program with poor readers in multiple grades. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 24, 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Ritchey, K. D., & Goeke, J. L. (2006). Orton-Gillingham and Orton-Gillingham—Based reading instruction: A review of the literature. Journal of Special Education, 40(3), 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Seymour, P. K., Aro, M., & Erskine, J. M. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shapiro, L. R., & Solity, J. (2008). Delivering phonological and phonics training within whole-class teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 597–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Share, D. L. (1999). Phonological recoding and orthographic learning: A direct test of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72, 95–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Share, D. L. (2004). Orthographic learning at a glance: On the time course and developmental onset of self-teaching. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87, 267–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Share, D. (2011). On the role of phonology in reading acquisition: The self-teaching hypothesis. In S. A. Brady, D. Braze, & C. A. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading: Theory and evidence (pp. 45–68). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  78. Short, E. J., Feagans, L., McKinney, J. D., & Appelbaum, M. I. (1986). Longitudinaly stability of LD subtypes based on age- and IQ-achievement discrepancies. Learning Disability Quarterly, 9, 214–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Simos, P. G., Fletcher, J. M., Bergman, E., Breier, J. I., Foorman, B. R., Castillo, E. M., et al. (2002). Dyslexia-specific brain activation profile becomes normal following successful remedial training. Neurology, 58, 1203–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Slavin, R. E., Cheung, A., Groff, C., & Lake, C. (2008). Effective reading programs for middle and high schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(3), 290–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith, N. B. (1965). American reading instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
  82. Stahl, S. A. (1999). Different strokes for different folks: A critique of learning styles. American Educator, Fall, 1–5.Google Scholar
  83. Stahl, S. A., & Kuhn, M. R. (1995). Does whole language or instruction matched to learning styles help children learn to read? School Psychology Review, 24(3), 393–404.Google Scholar
  84. Stanovich, K. E., & Siegel, L. S. (1994). Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 24–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stebbins, M. S., Stormont, M., Lembke, E. S., Wilson, D. J., & Clippard, D. (2012). Monitoring the effectiveness of the Wilson reading system for students with disabilities: One district’s example. Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, 20(1), 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stevens, E. A., Walker, M. A., & Vaughn, S. (2017). The effects of reading fluency interventions on the reading fluency and reading comprehension performance of elementary students with learning disabilities: A synthesis of the research from 2001 to 2014. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(5), 576–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stuart, M., Masterson, J., & Dixon, M. (2000). Spongelike acquisition of sight vocabulary in beginning readers? Journal of Research in Reading, 23(1), 12–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Suggate, S. P. (2016). A meta-analysis of the long-term effects of phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, and reading comprehension interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(1), 77–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Torgesen, J. K. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment registers. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Torgesen, J. K. (2004). Lessons learned from the last 20 years of research on interventions for students who experience difficulty learning to read. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 355–382). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  91. Torgesen, J. K. (2005). Recent discoveries on remedial interventions for children with dyslexia. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 521–537). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K. S., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading, disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(1), 33–58, 78.Google Scholar
  93. Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Alexander, A., Alexander, J., & MacPhee, K. (2003). Progress toward understanding the instructional conditions necessary for remediating reading difficulties in older children. In B. R. Foorman (Ed.), Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale (pp. 275–297). Baltimore, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  94. Torgesen, J., Schirm, A., Castner, L., Vartivarian, S., Mansfield, W., Myers, D. Stancavage, F. Durno, D., Javorsky, R., & Haan, C. (2007). National assessment of title I final report volume II: Closing the reading gap: Findings from a randomized trial of four reading interventions for striving readers (NCEE 2008-4013). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  95. Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Herron, J., & Lindamood, P. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches. Annals of Dyslexia, 60, 40–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Rose, E., Lindamood, P., Conway, T., et al. (1999). Preventing reading failure in young children with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 579–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Truch, S. (1994). Stimulating basic reading processes using auditory discrimination in depth. Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 60–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Truch, S. (2003). Comparing remedial outcomes using LIPS and Phono-Graphix: An in-depth look from a clinical perspective. Unpublished manuscript. Reading Foundation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Available at
  99. Truch, S. (2004). Remedial outcomes with different reading programs. Paper presented at the International Dyslexia Association Conference, San Diego, CA. Available at
  100. Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., Wanzek, J., Fletcher, J. M., … Francis, D. J. (2010). Response to intervention for middle school students with reading difficulties: Effects of a primary and secondary intervention. School Psychology Review, 39(1), 3–21.Google Scholar
  101. Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Leroux, A., Roberts, G., Denton, C., Barth, A., et al. (2012). Effects of intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with persistently inadequate response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(6), 515–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., et al. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 601–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based implications from extensive early reading interventions. School Psychology Review, 36, 541–561.Google Scholar
  105. Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Scammacca, N. K., Metz, K., Murray, C. S., Roberts, G., et al. (2013). Extensive reading interventions for students with reading difficulties after grade 3. Review of Educational Research, 83(2), 163–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Edmonds, M., & Reutebuch, C. K. (2008). A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 317–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., & Denton, C. A. (2010). The efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(1), 2–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilkins, A. J., Lewis, E., Smith, F., Rowland, E., & Tweedie, W. (2001). Coloured overlays and their benefit for reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 24(1), 41–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wise, B. W., Ring, J., & Olson, R. K. (1999). Training phonological awareness with and without explicit attention to articulation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72, 271–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State University of New York College at CortlandCortlandUSA
  2. 2.School Psychologist (retired)Iron RiverUSA

Personalised recommendations