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Wind Energy in Argentina: Actuality and Prospects

  • Carlos Labriola
Chapter
Part of the Innovative Renewable Energy book series (INREE)

Abstract

Argentina has a big territorial extension. Because of it, Argentina has a variety of climates ranging from subtropical to Antarctic ones. Also it has a variety of orography and soils, from estuaries and humid Pampas to the Andes and the Andean region of the Puna. It also has a hydrographic situation of rivers from mountain ranges and plains (Paraná and Uruguay), of diverse flows as well as an extensive Atlantic coast that reaches Antarctic latitudes. This allows to find in Argentina all varieties of renewable energy sources (RES) with relevant resources (hydro, biomass, solar, tidal, wave, marine currents, etc.). Among them, Wind Energy stands out particularly from Andean zone, to Atlantic coast in Patagonia with plant coefficient around 0.45. This chapter does not only refer to Wind Energy but also how it is included in the development of the rest of the RES in Argentina. Also consider the training of HHRR, laws, testing institutes and accumulation of energy and technology. Detailed description of use of Mini wind turbines applied in urban environments is Included. Since 1980s, different private and state companies began to study and install small wind farms with European turbines. These companies obtained more experience in where is the best place of wind resource than in the behavior and maintenance and operation of the turbines. During 1990s, development of investments in wind farms was made by Utility Services Cooperatives. But economic crisis meant that some of them did not continue installation or maintenance or simply was remained as wind project. In 2010, Argentinean government began to have interest in developing renewable energy (wind, PV, biomass, and micro-hydro) because of successive annual energy crises since 2005. The existing laws were modified and GENREN state renewable energy contest was launched with a great deal of wind farm proposals. But tariff conditions meant that only 30% of the projects began to be carried out. On the other hand it allowed local developments of wind turbines (NRG 1.2 MW, IMPSA WIND 2.5 MW). During 2016, the electricity tariff and importation of renewable energy equipment market is flexibilized, continued by the corresponding national and provincial laws. This change permitted editions of the RENOVAR Plans (1, 1.5, 2, 3) that allow the installation of turbines up to 3.5 MW Type II (limited by wind turbulence index in Argentina) to reach 20% of RE insertion in Argentine Electric System by 2025 (7000 MW). These wind energy investments begun to reveal Argentinean wind potential of 200,000 MW at 80 m height. This will permit to export energy in the future to the rest of South America, to at least six countries. A wind map for 80 m of height was made, which is applicable to different wind turbines from1 to 3.5 MW power. Academic specialists since 1990s, carry out mini and micro scale wind energy studies for wind farms in isolated mini-grids, and small wind turbines in urban environments. This development of wind installations is being accompanied by work force training in installation, operation and maintenance to be technicians and postgraduate courses. Since 1996 the impulse of RES and Hydrogen as vector of energy accumulation, permitted to develop the formulation and approval of laws, resolutions, ordinances at national, provincial, and municipal levels, beginning adequacy of regulations for construction of urban, residential, and agricultural buildings to the use of RES (PV and small and medium wind turbines). “In situ” Test Laboratory was implemented and available in the city of Cutral Có (Neuquén Province) to characterize small wind turbines, which has given impetus to local production. Also this laboratory with legal and technical regulations characterized and adjusted the nominal parameters of the small wind turbines of national manufacture. Today, both cases compete with that technology manufactured in Europe, the USA, and Asia. This chapter concludes with Argentinean experience by means of recommendations to politicians, businessmen, and investors of what aspects must be taken into account in renewable energy projects to be successful in an emerging or developing countries.

Keywords

Argentina Wind energy Renewable energy Prospects 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Labriola
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringNational University of ComahueNeuquénArgentina

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