Assigning Rulebooks

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.


We now turn attention to humans-as-they-are and posthumans to consider the ontological differences that may lead to a bifurcation of the species. We point out that a difference exists between things that naturally occur and things invented. Human activities can be mapped onto a tripartite set of categories, the first, which I refer to as Rule I governs natural laws, which apply uniformly to the behavior of matter under the equivalent conditions. Rule II, deals with the creation of the conditions that result in a socially constructed world, and how things work in society according to human intention. Rule III, pertains to matters that govern institutions, usually providing prescriptions involving duties and right.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for BioethicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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