Machines, Computers, Software

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.


The word “machine” often refers to a device that transforms energy into work, and within this definition we could include a heart that functions as a pump. The word machine has morphed from mechanical devices of springs and levers to natural things like human organs, and has become synonymous with words like computer, and even certain mathematical constructs. The trajectory of the development of the computer leads to it being anatomically embedded to assist and replace organs and eventually tailored to assist in altering DNA coding in vivo. Other computers, will have as their objective replication, that is reproducing computers like itself, or manufacturing drugs, or mixing artificial biological products within the body.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for BioethicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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