Advertisement

Anemia, Microhematuria and Proteinuria

  • Živanović S. Snežana
  • Ivana Djuric-Filipovic
  • Zorica Živković
Chapter

Abstract

  • Three major consequences of complement deficiencies are: 1) inadequate opsonization, 2) ineffective pathogen cell membrane lysis, and 3) co-morbid immune complex related disorders

  • Partial C4 deficiency predisposes to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while complete C4 deficiency is rare

Keywords

Complement deficiencies Systemic lupus erythematosus C4 deficiency 

References

  1. 1.
    Grumach AS, Kirschfink M. Are complement deficiencies really rare? Overview on prevalence, clinical importance and modern diagnostic approach. Mol Immunol. 2014;61(2):110–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bryan AR, Wu EY. Complement deficiencies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2014;14(7):448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mayilyan KR. Complement genetics, deficiencies, and disease associations. Protein Cell. 2012;3(7):487–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Degn SE, Jensenius JC, Thiel S. Disease-causing mutations in genes of the complement system. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88(6):689–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Complement: Deficiency Diseases. In: eLS.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470015902.a0002154.pub3
  6. 6.
    Kliegman R, Behrman R, Jenson H, Stanton B. Disorders of the complement system. In: Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 16th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000. p. 628–34.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Souilmi FZ, Houssaini TS, Alaoui H, Harmouch T, Atmani S, Hida M. Indications and results of renal biopsy in children: a single-center experience from Morocco. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant. 2015;26(4):810–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paripovic D, Kostic M, Kruscic D, Spasojevic B, Lomic G, Markovic-Lipkovski J, Basta-Jovanovic G, Smoljanic Z, Peco-Antic A. Indications and results of renal biopsy in children: a 10-year review from a single center in Serbia. J Nephrol. 2012;25(6):1054–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yin XL, Zou MS, Zhang Y, Wang J, Liu TL, Tang JH, Qiu LR, Chen Y, Yuan HQ, Zhou JH. Twenty-three-year review of disease patterns from renal biopsies: an experience from a pediatric renal center. J Nephrol. 2013;26(4):699–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sethi S, Nester CM, Smith RJ. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and C3 glomerulopathy: resolving the confusion. Kidney Int. 2012;81(5):434–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Živanović S. Snežana
    • 1
  • Ivana Djuric-Filipovic
    • 2
  • Zorica Živković
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Pediatric Internal Diseases Clinic, Clinical Center of Nis, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of NisNisSerbia
  2. 2.Children’s Hospital for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Medical Center “Dr Dragiša Mišović”BelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Children’s Hospital for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Medical Center “Dr Dragiša Mišović”BelgradeSerbia
  4. 4.Faculty of PharmacyUniversity Business Academy in Novi SadNovi SadSerbia

Personalised recommendations