Concerning Weight Loss Over Three Weeks

  • Farzaneh Rahmani
  • Nima RezaeiEmail author


  • Recent onset of enuresis in a previously toilet-trained child should prompt investigation for diabetes mellitus

  • Screening for celiac disease is indicated at the time of diagnosis in all children with type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosis

  • Screening for autoantibodies like against glutamic-acid-decarboxylase, IA2, and zinc transporter 8, does not help differentiate type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus in pediatric population


Diabetes mellitus Celiac disease Autoantibodies Anti-GAD Anti-IA2 


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    Amed S, Pozzilli P. Diagnosis of diabetes type in children and young people: challenges and recommendations. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016;4(5):385–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Pham-Short A, Donaghue KC, Ambler G, Phelan H, Twigg S, Craig ME. Screening for celiac disease in Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2015;136(1):e170–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Hage M, Zantout MS, Azar ST. Thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus. J Thyroid Res. 2011;2011:439463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Student’s Scientific Research Center (SSRC)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.NeuroImaging Network (NIN)Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies (RCID), Children’s Medical CenterTehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)TehranIran
  4. 4.Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA)Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran

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